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ENERGY: New catalyst found for clean energy fuel

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Scott's patents have a new opportunity...

New catalyst found for clean energy fuel

 by Colin Poitras
 
 
A team of UConn chemists led by professors Steven Suib and James Rusling has developed a new material that could make hydrogen capture more commercially viable and provide a key element for a new generation of cheaper, light-weight hydrogen fuel cells.
 

The new metal-free catalyst uses carbon graphene nanotubes infused with sulfur. Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe and a promising source for clean energy. But producing high-grade hydrogen is an expensive and energy-consuming process. Often, the energy spent extracting hydrogen is worth more than the it produces. Finding a cheaper and more efficient way of capturing hydrogen would go a long way toward the creation of a sustainable hydrogen economy, and would help reduce the world's reliance on fossil fuels.

"We've made a material that looks pretty good," says Suib, Board of Trustees Distinguished Professor of Chemistry and director of UConn's Institute of Materials Science. "Our results show that this material is more than competitive with the state-of-the-art materials quoted in literature, and exceptionally good for the reactions we need." Current hydrogen production uses intense heat to separate hydrogen from hydrocarbons found in crude oil. But the resulting hydrogen isn't very pure, and byproducts must be scrubbed out. An alternate process, capturing hydrogen in water, is cleaner and more sustainable, but it too has limitations.

Electrocatalysts involved in this process are usually made of like platinum and iridium. But they are very expensive, making the commercialization of pure hydrogen fuels difficult. Finding a non-metal catalyst that has all of the electrochemical properties of the rare earth metals but can be made at a much reduced cost and still remain stable has been a goal of scientists for years. Suib and Rusling, an expert in electrochemistry, knew that sulfur-infused carbon graphene nanotubes were a potentially efficient non-metal catalyst for an . An oxygen reduction reaction, or ORR, happens when oxygen and are converted to water. The reaction is a key component of hydrogen-based fuel cells. Hydrogen gas used to power the cells passes through a catalyst, currently a corrosive-resistant metal like platinum, causing an oxygen reduction electrochemical reaction that creates energy and – as a byproduct – water.

 

But reversing that process – starting with water and extracting pure hydrogen from it, a procedure known as an oxygen evolution reaction – is much more of a challenge electrochemically. Suib and Rusling, working with a team of graduate students led by Ph.D. candidates Abdelhamid El-Sawy and Islam Mosa, decided to give it a shot.

The key, Suib says, was manipulating the sulfur and carbon atoms to create stable bonds and structures within the nanotubes, while also maintaining or improving the tubes' electrochemical potential so that it mirrored those found in the rare metals. "If you are going to make a hydrogen economy, you need to have new materials that do the same thing as the extremely expensive rare earth metals," says Suib. "But how do you get something that is cheap, durable, and stable enough to be scaled up to industry levels? That was our challenge."

The process developed in Suib's and Rusling's labs uses a dual doping procedure involving sulfur and benzyl disulfide treated at high heat. The researchers had to carefully add heteroatoms of sulfur at extremely low levels to strike the delicate balance needed to maintain usability and stability. Add too much sulfur and the sample would be unstable; not enough and it would be ineffective. Suib says the procedure for isolating hydrogen in water, in a very general way, is similar to trying to separate flour and sand after they've been mixed together thoroughly.

In the end, he says, the sulfur-doped nanotubes used much less energy in the chemical reaction process than other known processes, and were much more active and efficient catalysts than other known products. Most importantly, he points out, the sulfur-infused nanotubes are efficient for both separating from water and reducing oxygen into water. Materials with those dual properties are rare, he notes. "I was surprised, in the end, that it worked so well," Suib says, with a grin. "We thought it might work, but we didn't think it would work so well." Powerful transmission electron microscopes and scanning electron microscopes in UConn's Bioscience Electron Microscopy Lab, Institute of Materials Science, and new FEI Center for Advanced Microscopy and Materials Analysis were instrumental in helping researchers test and characterize the new material as it developed in the lab, Suib says.

Explore further: Inexpensive, efficient bi-metallic electrocatalysts may open floodgates for hydrogen fuel

More information: Abdelhamid M. El-Sawy et al. Controlling the Active Sites of Sulfur-Doped Carbon Nanotube-Graphene Nanolobes for Highly Efficient Oxygen Evolution and Reduction Catalysis, Advanced Energy Materials (2016). DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501966

Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2016-05-catalyst-energy-fuel.html#jCp

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ENERGY: Sophisticated enzyme-mimic enables efficient hydrogen production

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Sophisticated enzyme-mimic enables efficient hydrogen production

 
Researchers from the University of Amsterdam's Van 't Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences (HIMS) have developed a new catalyst that paves the way for low-cost, large-scale hydrogen-production. The researchers, led by Professor Joost Reek, recently presented their enzyme-mimicking catalyst in Science Advances, the peer-reviewed open-access initiative of the publisher of Science.
 A hydrogen-based sustainable economy depends on technology to generate molecular hydrogen using sustainable solar or wind energy. Catalytic chemistry already enables this by using water as feedstock and platinum and iridium as active materials. However, because such elements are scarce and expensive this technology cannot be applied at the required global scale.
Looking at nature To overcome this hurdle, chemists have started looking toward nature where so-called iron-iron hydrogenase enzymes catalyse the conversion (reduction) of protons to with a performance comparable to platinum. It is a major challenge to apply these enzymes directly in hydrogen-producing devices since their isolation is difficult and their performance in air poor. Nevertheless, their high efficiency has spurred the search for comparable iron-based molecular complexes that also can produce hydrogen with a platinum-like performance. Over the last decade, numerous synthetic complexes have been prepared that structurally and functionally mimic the active site of hydrogenase enzymes. Most of these 'synthetic hydrogenases' show serious drawbacks such as a low efficiency and stability and the requirement of organic solvents. Hydrogenase-mimics that perform efficiently in an aqueous environment while being tolerant to air have until now not been reported. Characteristic feature In the current edition of Science Advances, the researchers offer a possible solution by presenting a new oxygen-tolerant iron-iron hydrogenase-mimic that not only achieves efficient proton reduction in aqueous media but also displays electron storage and pre-organisation in close proximity to the active site - a feature characteristic of working natural enzymes. The Amsterdam-designed synthetic hydrogenase contains a redox-active phosphorous ligand that acts as an electron reservoir and actively partakes in the reduction of protons. It donates an electron to the during the catalytic cycle when needed. As a result, the catalyst displays high turnover numbers (TON) and turnover frequencies (TOF). Combining this high performance with the operation in aqueous media and the tolerance towards oxygen, this new hydrogenase-mimic is a major step toward the development of catalysts for inexpensive large-scale hydrogen-producing devices. Further development will be directed toward analogs that operate at lower overpotentials and can be efficiently implemented in devices (for example, by anchoring to electrodes or metal-organic frameworks).

Explore further: Synthetic catalyst mimics nature's 'hydrogen economy'

More information: R. Becker et al. An iron-iron hydrogenase mimic with appended electron reservoir for efficient proton reduction in aqueous media, Science Advances (2016). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1501014
Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2016-01-sophisticated-enzyme-mimic-enables-efficient-hydrogen.html#jCp

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ENERGY: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND STORAGE PROJECTS

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ENERGY PRODUCTION AND STORAGE PROJECTS

Energy Storage

The energy density of even today’s most extreme batteries is less than that of our  technology. In other words: there is no other battery solution on the market today that can beat the patented system energy density capability and features. Our systems can deploy end-to-end, zero-GHG, clean, SAFE, energy paths without the use of “dirty power” sources. Our automotive technology eliminates the need to get stuck sitting around in “out-in-the-sticks” towns, staring at the ground, waiting for your car to charge.

SUSTAINABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION AND STORAGE

CONGRESSIONAL AND INDUSTRY COMMENDATIONS SEMINAL PATENTS GRANT WINNER FULLY OPERATIONAL UNITS BUILT MAKES ENERGY FROM WATER EFFICIENTLY STORES MORE ENERGY, FOR LONGER RANGE USAGE, WITH LEAST TOXIC CYCLING  

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VIDEO #1:  http://www.vimeo.com/125658624

 

One of our patented fuel cassette technology scales to any size to provide the best power solutions for:
Portable Power
– Electronics, Emergency, Mobile
Vehicle Power
– EV, CNG, Hybrid, RV, Tactical
Stationary Power
– Community, Field Unit, Back-up, Remote Housing
 
Why Is This Better?: – Longer Vehicle Range Than Any Other Solution. – Longer Electronic Device Operation Than Any Other Solution. – Less Carcinogenic Than Any Other Solution. – Faster Recharge Than Any Other Solution. – Provides Greater National Security Than Any Other Solution. – Easier To Produce And Manufacture Domestically Than Any Other Solution. – Reduces The Weight, Decreases The Cost And Increases The Range Of EV’s Better Than Any Other Solution. – More Worldwide Recharge/Refuel Locations Than Any Other Solution. – Eliminates The Need For Extension Cords More Than Any Other Solution. – Able To Produce More Power From A Clean Grid Than Any Other Solution. – Easier To Glass-Encapsulate, To Avoid Accidents, Than Any Other Solution. – Better Able To Load-Balance Energy Demands Than Any Other Solution. – Least Toxic Fuel Than Any Other Solution. – Better Able To Provide Power From Within National Borders Than Any Other Solution. – Exceeds The Metrics Of All Competing Energy Solutions. – Our Patents Cover Over 3000 Energy Storage Chemistries.Tested globally in thousands of test deployments, millions of miles of auto use and in space.We license and design portable power, electric vehicle power and range extenders. We are a developer of clean, green, safe, recyclable energy solutions. We hold one of the premiere patent portfolios for in-house engineered energy storage. We are an expert in time-shifted energy deployment.Who else thinks this is a great solution? These folks, from both parties, for a start:

 
 
 

Clean, mobile, long-lasting, local power.

 
 The US Department of Energy has released its final report that collected data from more than 180 fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) over a six year period from 2005–2011. Within this period the vehicles made more than 500,000 trips and travelled more than 3.6 million miles, impleting more than 33,000 fill-ups at refuelling stations across the USA. The project found that these vehicles achieved more than twice the efficiency of today’s gasoline vehicles with refuelling times of five minutes average. The report comes as the world’s major automakers prepare to commercially deploy FCEV from as early as next year and is a positive reminder of the benefits the technology can offer.Our technology includes patent-protected glass-encapsulation technology which prevents solvents and moisture from degrading the energy storage materials.A leader in innovation and the delivering of the key solution for reducing dependence on foreign oil; Our engineers are the inventors of patented hot-swap transportable energy storage, the Fuel Cassettes®; Endless-EV™ range-extenders, electric vehicle power plants, and gas station-pumpable encapsulation bead storage compounds.We deploy proprietary solar, inductive, wind, fuel cell and battery hybridization which are technologies that have been proven for decades by NASA, the Department of Defense, the aerospace industry, Federal energy agencies and in universities around the world.The Energy Station™ and the Fuel Dock+ provide a single, highly scalable architecture, that can deliver power resources for: homes, offices, special events, hosting centers, portable soldier power, rack-mount markets, cell tower back-up, home power, forklift power, portable generators, boating power, camping power, portable electronics, aircraft power, neighborhood power, co-generation power, solar panel intermittency elimination, wind intermittency elimination, and back-up power.Winner: Congressional commendation & federal grant award. Awardee: Multiple issued U.S. patents. We hold patents on all core technology disclosed on this website.Be prepared for any disaster with our power technology.


Hyundai’ says: “…simply more efficient than batteries”
“Those looking to spice up a dinner party should seat John Krafcik and Carlos Ghosn next to each other should they get the opportunity. Krafcik, who runs North American operations for Hyundai, recently appeared to take a poker to the concept of battery-electric vehicles, which have long been espoused by Nissan-Renault chief Ghosn, and pushed his weight behind hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles. Krafcik, in an interview with Plug In Cars, noted that most EVs have to carry around about a half-ton of batteries, whether fully charged or tapped out. Additionally, batteries lose about one percent of their capacity each day they’re not used, while recharging them from anything other than a quick charger takes far longer than refilling a fuel-cell vehicle with hydrogen. Krafcik said this all points to what he called “so much inherent waste and inefficiency” in battery electric vehicles.
 
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the UCAR/NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the National Center for Atmospheric Research say:
“We engaged in a comprehensive analysis using global modeling methods that looks at relationships between deaths and exposure to particulate matter and ozone: air pollutants indirectly influenced by climate change. They found that 500,000 premature deaths could be avoided by the year 2030, of which two-thirds would be in China. By 2050, 800,000 to 1.8 million premature deaths could be avoided. Reductions in premature deaths from particulate air pollution (CPD plus lung cancer) and ozone (respiratory) in 2030 and 2050 (deaths per year per 1,000 km). Petrochemicals cause cancer. Actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and contact with petroleum reduce air pollutants, bringing co-benefits for air quality and human health and overall reduction in Cancer. Previous studies of this sort of thing typically looked at near-term and local benefits, neglecting the long-range transport of air pollutants, long-term changes in populations and the effects of climate change on air quality”  So the next time someone tells you fossil fuels are cheaper, remind them that there’s a lot more to it than the price at the pump.”

Proof of Technology
Here are many examples of the technology in use commercially:
 
Where can you see this technology at work?:Clean, green, bountiful, non-carcinogenic, efficient, long-range energy is something the “other guys” can’t compete with. History and scientific fact has now proven that our solid-state chemical energy systems were (as predicted), and are, the best bet for national energy independence for each country, dependable long range vehicle systems, aerospace technologies, retail long-duration power and many other needs. You can find third parties selling our technology in major retail stores, government supply shops and OEM builds around the world.NASA, global drone programs, major electronics groups, boating companies, tactical teams, aerospace leaders, national governments and hundreds of companies around the world demand the technology for their energy solution. Millions of miles without incident on land, sea, air and in space.
An extensive set of hundreds of additional in-use referrals is now available
 

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ENERGY: FUEL CELL ENERGY SYSTEMS

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Energy Storage

The energy density of even today’s most extreme batteries is less than that of our  technology. In other words: there is no other battery solution on the market today that can beat the patented system energy density capability and features. Our systems can deploy end-to-end, zero-GHG, clean, SAFE, energy paths without the use of “dirty power” sources. Our automotive technology eliminates the need to get stuck sitting around in “out-in-the-sticks” towns, staring at the ground, waiting for your car to charge.

SUSTAINABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION AND STORAGE

CONGRESSIONAL AND INDUSTRY COMMENDATIONS SEMINAL PATENTS GRANT WINNER FULLY OPERATIONAL UNITS BUILT MAKES ENERGY FROM WATER EFFICIENTLY STORES MORE ENERGY, FOR LONGER RANGE USAGE, WITH LEAST TOXIC CYCLING   [vimeo 125658624 w=425 h=350]
Our patented technology scales to any size to provide the best power solutions for: – Portable Power– Electronics, Emergency, Mobile – Vehicle Power– EV, CNG, Hybrid, RV, Tactical – Stationary Power– Community, Field Unit, Back-up, Remote Housing
 
Why Is This Better?: – Longer Vehicle Range Than Any Other Solution. – Longer Electronic Device Operation Than Any Other Solution. – Less Carcinogenic Than Any Other Solution. – Faster Recharge Than Any Other Solution. – Provides Greater National Security Than Any Other Solution. – Easier To Produce And Manufacture Domestically Than Any Other Solution. – Reduces The Weight, Decreases The Cost And Increases The Range Of EV’s Better Than Any Other Solution. – More Worldwide Recharge/Refuel Locations Than Any Other Solution. – Eliminates The Need For Extension Cords More Than Any Other Solution. – Able To Produce More Power From A Clean Grid Than Any Other Solution. – Easier To Glass-Encapsulate, To Avoid Accidents, Than Any Other Solution. – Better Able To Load-Balance Energy Demands Than Any Other Solution. – Least Toxic Fuel Than Any Other Solution. – Better Able To Provide Power From Within National Borders Than Any Other Solution. – Exceeds The Metrics Of All Competing Energy Solutions. – Our Patents Cover Over 3000 Energy Storage Chemistries.Tested globally in thousands of test deployments, millions of miles of auto use and in space.We license and design portable power, electric vehicle power and range extenders. We are a developer of clean, green, safe, recyclable energy solutions. We hold one of the premiere patent portfolios for in-house engineered energy storage. We are an expert in time-shifted energy deployment.Who else thinks this is a great solution? These folks, from both parties, for a start:

 

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Clean, mobile, long-lasting, local power.

Picture
 The US Department of Energy has released its final report that collected data from more than 180 fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) over a six year period from 2005–2011. Within this period the vehicles made more than 500,000 trips and travelled more than 3.6 million miles, impleting more than 33,000 fill-ups at refuelling stations across the USA. The project found that these vehicles achieved more than twice the efficiency of today’s gasoline vehicles with refuelling times of five minutes average. The report comes as the world’s major automakers prepare to commercially deploy FCEV from as early as next year and is a positive reminder of the benefits the technology can offer.Our technology includes patent-protected glass-encapsulation technology which prevents solvents and moisture from degrading the energy storage materials.A leader in innovation and the delivering of the key solution for reducing dependence on foreign oil; Our engineers are the inventors of patented hot-swap transportable energy storage, the Fuel Cassettes®; Endless-EV™ range-extenders, electric vehicle power plants, and gas station-pumpable encapsulation bead storage compounds.We deploy proprietary solar, inductive, wind, fuel cell and battery hybridization which are technologies that have been proven for decades by NASA, the Department of Defense, the aerospace industry, Federal energy agencies and in universities around the world.The Energy Station™ and the Fuel Dock+ provide a single, highly scalable architecture, that can deliver power resources for: homes, offices, special events, hosting centers, portable soldier power, rack-mount markets, cell tower back-up, home power, forklift power, portable generators, boating power, camping power, portable electronics, aircraft power, neighborhood power, co-generation power, solar panel intermittency elimination, wind intermittency elimination, and back-up power.Winner: Congressional commendation & federal grant award. Awardee: Multiple issued U.S. patents. We hold patents on all core technology disclosed on this website.Be prepared for any disaster with our power technology.


Hyundai’ says: “…simply more efficient than batteries”
“Those looking to spice up a dinner party should seat John Krafcik and Carlos Ghosn next to each other should they get the opportunity. Krafcik, who runs North American operations for Hyundai, recently appeared to take a poker to the concept of battery-electric vehicles, which have long been espoused by Nissan-Renault chief Ghosn, and pushed his weight behind hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles. Krafcik, in an interview with Plug In Cars, noted that most EVs have to carry around about a half-ton of batteries, whether fully charged or tapped out. Additionally, batteries lose about one percent of their capacity each day they’re not used, while recharging them from anything other than a quick charger takes far longer than refilling a fuel-cell vehicle with hydrogen. Krafcik said this all points to what he called “so much inherent waste and inefficiency” in battery electric vehicles.
 
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the UCAR/NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the National Center for Atmospheric Research say:
“We engaged in a comprehensive analysis using global modeling methods that looks at relationships between deaths and exposure to particulate matter and ozone: air pollutants indirectly influenced by climate change. They found that 500,000 premature deaths could be avoided by the year 2030, of which two-thirds would be in China. By 2050, 800,000 to 1.8 million premature deaths could be avoided. Reductions in premature deaths from particulate air pollution (CPD plus lung cancer) and ozone (respiratory) in 2030 and 2050 (deaths per year per 1,000 km). Petrochemicals cause cancer. Actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and contact with petroleum reduce air pollutants, bringing co-benefits for air quality and human health and overall reduction in Cancer. Previous studies of this sort of thing typically looked at near-term and local benefits, neglecting the long-range transport of air pollutants, long-term changes in populations and the effects of climate change on air quality”  So the next time someone tells you fossil fuels are cheaper, remind them that there’s a lot more to it than the price at the pump.”

Proof of Technology
Here are many examples of the technology in use commercially:
 
Where can you see our technology at work?:Clean, green, bountiful, non-carcinogenic, efficient, long-range energy is something the “other guys” can’t compete with. History and scientific fact has now proven that our solid-state chemical energy systems were (as predicted), and are, the best bet for national energy independence for each country, dependable long range vehicle systems, aerospace technologies, retail long-duration power and many other needs. You can find third parties selling our technology in major retail stores, government supply shops and OEM builds around the world.NASA, global drone programs, major electronics groups, boating companies, tactical teams, aerospace leaders, national governments and hundreds of companies around the world demand the technology for their energy solution. Millions of miles without incident on land, sea, air and in space. Here is a very small sample of the technology, fully functional, shipping globally by partners, clients and duplicators:
An extensive set of hundreds of additional in-use referrals is now available…
Why Does Elon Musk go out of his way to sabotage this technology? Read this: Countering_the_anti-hydrogen_trolls_and_shills_1-21.pdf

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ENERGY: Fuel Cell Capacity Set to Grow 11GW by 2026

Today, 8 percent of all U.S. electricity generation capacity comes from customer-sited CHP and fuel cells.

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US CHP and Fuel Cell Capacity Set to Grow 11GW by 2026

US CHP and Fuel Cell Capacity Set to Grow 11GW by 2026

Photo Credit: shutterstock.com

 
According to GTM Research’s latest report, CHP and Fuel Cells 2016-2026: Growth Opportunities, Markets and Forecast, 11 gigawatts of new customer-sited fuel-based generation will be deployed in the U.S. over the next decade. GTM Research forecasts that the cumulative U.S. CHP and fuel cell market will grow from 84 gigawatts today to 95 gigawatts by 2026. While distributed renewables get the majority of the distributed generation (DG) headlines, solar and wind are not the only customer-sited generation sources. Today, 8 percent of all U.S. electric generation capacity comes from customer-sited CHP and fuel cells. This is almost double that of the total U.S. wind capacity, and 10 times that of distributed solar. After a decade of limited growth due to regulatory uncertainties and a declining U.S. manufacturing sector, new incentives and corporate activity are priming the market for resumed growth. “What looks like a stagnant market on the surface is actually smoldering with a significant number of technology and fuel options, capable vendors and a new batch of customers who are ready to adopt fuel-based DG systems,” said Mei Shibata, lead author of the report. “The whole thing could light up again if implementation barriers are lowered and regulations are deemed sufficiently stable from a customer’s perspective.” FIGURE: U.S. CHP and Fuel Cell Market Forecast, 2016-2026 Source: CHP and Fuel Cells 2016-2026: Growth Opportunities, Markets and Forecast CHP adoption is increasingly driven by non-industrial customers, while corporations and data centers in a few select states continue to drive U.S. adoption of fuel cells. Today, four U.S. states make up 90 percent of all fuel cell installations: California, Connecticut, Delaware and New York.
FIGURE: Top Fuel Cell Applications in Major U.S. State Markets Source: CHP and Fuel Cells 2016-2026: Growth Opportunities, Markets and Forecast “Fuel-based DG has and will continue to play a significant role in the U.S. electricity system, as the U.S. grid infrastructure ages and the need for cleaner and affordable generation options increases,” says Shibata. “We may be close to a tipping point for the market to start growing again, but among new customer segments and applications.” *** For more information, download the report brochure here.
 

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ENERGY: Batteries v. Fuel Cells in Zero Emission Vehicles

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Lithium Battery Investors funded The Obama Administration. They are terrified of Fuel Cell Electric power because it beats lithium ion on every safety, national security, range and operational metric. Obama appointee Steven Chu, shut own all fuel cell programs at the Department of Energy on orders from Silicon Valley Campaign financiers. Now that the biases are exposed, what is the fair and just path for Americans?

The Weird Angry Politics of Batteries v. Fuel Cells in Zero Emission Vehicles: Our Transportation Future, Part 2

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    Shane M. Kite This Brooklynite covers music, art, film, finance, technology, politics, small business, economics, national security and foreign affairs.
The Bias and the Reality
When fairly comparing total “well-to-wheels” greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) and well-to-wheels fuel efficiencies of fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs), FCEVs come out “greener” than BEVs, in most scenarios.
Specifically, FCEVs emit fewer GHGs, and consume less energy, than BEVs do when compared over the same 300-mile range on a well-to-wheels basis, most of the time.
But you wouldn’t know that from reading the press coverage of the two technologies; in fact, you would think just the opposite.
The problem involves editors allowing verbatim repetition of summarized conclusions of industry-sponsored research - which seems to contain unfair, apples-to-oranges judgments - without analyzing the data used, or the assumptions made.
The most flagrant of these unfair comparisons has involved using different ranges (miles driven) when comparing the well-to-wheels emissions of each type of vehicle.
Specifically, some studies have used a 100-mile range for BEVs while using a 300-mile range for FCEVs, when comparing the amount of GHGs the cars produce. Unsurprisingly, driving 200 more miles produces higher emissions for FCEVs, and thus garners “greener” results in favor of BEVs.
But comparing GHGs and energy consumption fairly requires 1.), using the same competitive maximum ranges, and 2.), demands inputting the actual or real-world energy sources these vehicles use to roll their wheels down the road. When one does so using the latest Argonne National Laboratory “GREET” data - the scientific authority on emissions and energy impacts of new transport fuels - FCEVs come out greener and more energy efficient, most of the time.
The chart below compares emissions of FCEVs and BEVs over the same 300-mile range, based on real-world energy consumption. The FCEV energy input is steam methane reforming of natural gas, which is how nearly all gaseous hydrogen is produced today. The sources for BEVs include the overall U.S grid mix (coal, natural gas, nuclear, etc.) as well as the regional mixes of electricity production that power the grid wherever BEVs plug in.
Note: The U.S. grid is parsed by regional councils, roughly equating geographically with Alaska (ASCC); Florida (FRCC); Hawaii (HICC); western Midwest (MRO); Northeast (NPCC); eastern Midwest and southern Mid-Atlantic (RFC); the South (SERC); Southern Great Plains (SPP); Texas (TRE); and the West (WECC).
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Current data shows FCEVs emit less GHGs than BEVs, across most of the country.
BEV GHGs depend on the specific grid mix the cars plug into, and those levels change according to what energy sources power the grids in towns with charging stations. For instance, BEVs tend to be the greener ZEV option currently versus FCEVs in some parts of the Northeast, because a cleaner energy mix - natural gas and nuclear power - generate significant portions of electricity in Connecticut, New York, New Jersey and New Hampshire. Maine is mostly powered by renewables, natural gas and hydroelectric sources; while Vermont is hydro- and renewables-powered.
But as soon as wheels roll into Maryland, Pennsylvania or Delaware - or almost anywhere else besides the West Coast, Alaska, Idaho or Nevada - BEVs plug into coal country, making FCEVs the greener ZEV option. That can also be the case along Connecticut’s Gold Coast; near Cape Cod, Mass.; Jersey City, N.J.; Western New York; or Portsmouth, N.H., where recharging stations are still partially coal-powered.
Grids do not significantly impact FCEV GHGs (which is why above, they’re all 260) because hydrogen is now made almost exclusively from natural gas.
But as both electricity and hydrogen sourcing shifts to renewable production, such as from wind and solar, or via other methods like nuclear, hydroelectric or geothermal, FCEVs and BEVs should show very low, nearly matching GHGs.
ZEVs will then be competing more on traditional characteristics like range, power, maintenance, style and handling.
They’re already virtually tied in GHGs when their fuels are fed solely from natural gas. So places like Rhode Island, which is nearly all natural gas-powered, could be a uniquely competitive ZEV market.
Note the numbers shown are not static: They’re meant to give a sense of energy possibilities for both types of ZEV.
Sourcing Shenanigans
Some reports have compared BEVs that plug into only the California grid - which leads the nation in renewable energy production but is of course not the only place where electric cars recharge - against a source of hydrogen like water electrolysis: Although renewably powered, electrolysis has yet to be fully commercialized because scientists are still working on how to make “splitting water” - separating the hydrogen from the oxygen in H2O - more efficient. Electrolyzing currently requires a lot of energy. But scientists are halfway toward a breakthrough that would change that.
Studies sourcing liquid hydrogen have also skewed FCEV GHGs higher, even though the vast majority of hydrogen produced is gaseous, and nearly all FCEVs use H2 gas to fill their tanks.
The chart below compares total well-to-wheels energy consumption, which scientists consider the truest, most complete fuel efficiency gauge: U.S. miles per gallon, and mpg-equivalents, only measure tank-to-wheels efficiencies.

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ENERGY: The ION DRIVE gets verified by even more scientists and agencies..

Scott received a patent award from the United States Government for his ion microsthruster massed array ASIC design for an ion propulsion lifting and pushing propulsion panel which has been proven, AND DEMIONSTRATED, to fly in BOTH Earth atmosphere AND outer space.

Our patented ion drive system beat NASA'S patent and our four foot long model flew in Intel's patent office boardroom!

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Scott developed and won the U.S. patent on a manufacturable ion drive platform.

His Team his building something, involving this technology, that will change the world...

(read more about it here). During the course of testing the workable flying prototypes, quantitative metrics sensors indicated that the devices were showing a difference in energy that had previously unknown qualities. New tests for a large bulk thrust version, by third parties, still show these novel variances:

Think it's way out science? Read the Proof that the technology works:

emdrive2.pdf

EMDRIVE25.pdf

Final NASA Eagleworks Paper Confirms Promising EmDrive Results,.pdf

It's Official: NASA's Peer-Reviewed EM Drive Paper Has Finally Been Published .pdf

Q-Thruster In-Vacuum Fall 2015 Test Report.pdf

SEE THIS VIDEO OF AN EARLY EXPERIMENT:  MICROTHRUSTERS-TODAY.mp4

SEE THIS VIDEO OF AN EARLIER EXPERIMENT:

Here is a working unit of the kind Scott received a U.S. Patent on:

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A new theory of inertia could explain the EM Drive’s anomalous thrust

[object Object] The EM Drive is the most important advance in space propulsion since rocket fuel itself — just so long as it isn’t a big, fat mistake. It’s being hailed as a next-generation electric space thruster that requires no fuel, but its apparent ability to generate thrust has defied scientific explanation. The question of whether the EM Drive is a huge step forward for science, or simply a refresher course in the importance of taking careful measurements, has vexed NASA engineers. Last year they announced thrust readings that could not be falsified by any means they devised, but in their own paper they went on to actively disown the results. Now, a physicist from Plymouth University may have figured out an explanation for the EM Drive’s stubborn refusal to sit still: with a whole new theory of inertia, we could explain both the EM Drive’s anomalous thrust and a long-standing mystery in physics.

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 The EM Drive. Note the “truncated cone” at the back.
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Repeated testing, with multiple versions of the EM Drive built by multiple independent sources, have all failed to prove that it is not generating the thrust reported by prior tests. Against all odds, the EM Drive’s abilities are seem to be holding up to scrutiny, and thus seemingly in contravention of the law that every action must have an equal and opposite reaction. EM Drive inventor Roger Shawyer thought he could get around this by invoking a process called vacuum polarization, arguing that the system takes transient particles that appear spontaneously in space, turns them into a plasma, and expels them out the back. If true, this would mean that the EM Drive really doesn’t break the laws of physics but, unfortunately, it doesn’t seem to be the explanation. This theory could equally fix the EM Drive’s problem with Newton’s Third Law by positing a whole new theory of inertia. Relativity predicts something called the Unruh effect, in which any accelerating body should observe an amount of extra heat relative to its acceleration. Put differently, the faster you accelerate, the hotter the universe should look; wave a thermometer in absolute zero, and in principle its movement should cause it to observe a temperature very, very, very slightly above absolute zero, especially if you can wave it at relativistic speeds.

Space based solar could one day power an EM Drive ship to the stars. Or, that could not happen instead.

The new study‘s argument relies on a further idea called Unruh radiation, which refers to the unconfirmed idea that the observation of this heated universe will stimulate the release of real particles — in other words, particles from the pure vacuum of space, not unlike our vacuum polarization particles. In the vast majority of cases, this theory predicts the results we’re used to seeing in the world around us, same as the classical theory of inertia. But its predictions diverge from tradition in one area: extremely small accelerations, or, about the level of acceleration (perhaps) observed in the EM Drive.

 Ion thrusters are another low-powered solution, applying weak but constant acceleration

The idea is that, since the wavelength of Unruh radiation would increase as acceleration decreases, for extremely small accelerations a body should be experiencing Unruh radiation with a wavelength longer than the observable universe. With this being the case, inertia may only take on whole-wavelength units over time. Behaving in this way is to become “quantized,” to exist only in some multiple of an indivisible unit of measure (“a quanta”). So, at very low accelerations, inertia jumps from tiny magnitude to slightly less tiny magnitude without going through all the intervening values we would expect. Evidence for this theory may predate the EM Drive. Scientists have long observed a phenomenon called the Flyby Anomaly, in which spacecraft performing a flyby of Earth will move noticeably and reliably faster than we calculate they ought to. The study’s author claims that this new theory of inertia could explain this effect, and produce more accurate inertial predictions that better reflect our observations. On the other hand, it’s not like this is the first theory that could explain the Flyby Anomaly, and most of the others don’t have to posit whole new theories of inertia to do it. Occam’s Razor would have us assume the simplest explanation — but Occam’s Razor is just a guideline, and certainly wrong from time to time. In the context of the EM Drive, this new inertial effect would cause thrust inside the EM Drive’s truncated cone section. Different wavelengths of Unruh radiation will be allowed at either end of the cone, due to the change in diameter. This means that as particles bounce back and forth inside the cone, their inertia would have to change as well. According to our good friend the law of conservation of momentum, this means the particles will have to generate thrust — that is, thrust without the need to bring fuel. To us, this sounds far-fetched. It’s arguing that the acceleration caused by the EM Drive is a product of…the EM Drive’s own acceleration? Inertia is associated with the release of particles which can be manipulated to produce inertia. Now, we still have to input energy in the form of electricity, so it’s not quite a perpetual motion scheme — but it’s not far off. If confirmed, this is the sort of insight that could give us hover-cars, or with a cheap source of abundant clean power, hover-castles, too. This is perpetual thrust for nothing more than the cost of electricity.

 Harold White’s possible Alcubierre warp drive, and star ship.

It’s important to note that the Unruh radiation theorized to cause this behavior has not been confirmed to exist, so in principle we have a hypothesis built on a hypothesis — not the strongest of footing. However, it does make some testable claims — and according to the paper, they’ve managed to predict the observed acceleration in the EM Drive to within an order of magnitude, in every case. More exciting is the fact that they have concrete ideas for future work. One idea is that, if the cone shape is truly causing the observed thrust by providing an asymmetrical environment for the Unruh radiation, then flipping the cone also ought to flip the direction of the thrust. In other words, it should be trivially easy to produce a backwards EM Drive with only the cone direction changed, and thus should produce the same amount of thrust as before, but in the opposite direction. Another prediction is that putting a dielectric in the reaction chamber should increase the drive’s thrust output, which is both an easily testable idea and exciting, if true. The fact is, the EM Drive is still a big mystery. Its readings are now far better supported than they were at this time last year, but that’s not to say that they have been accepted by a majority of the scientific community. Any eventual explanation for this seemingly impossible behavior will, almost by definition, be an astonishing change to basic physical theory — all we really need to do is hope that the thrust readings hold up to testing in space and elsewhere.

Electromagnetic propulsion

This test engine accelerates ions using electrostatic forces

Main article: Electrically powered spacecraft propulsion

Rather than relying on high temperature and fluid dynamics to accelerate the reaction mass to high speeds, there are a variety of methods that use electrostatic or electromagnetic forces to accelerate the reaction mass directly. Usually the reaction mass is a stream of ions. Such an engine typically uses electric power, first to ionize atoms, and then to create a voltage gradient to accelerate the ions to high exhaust velocities.

The idea of electric propulsion dates back to 1906, when Robert Goddard considered the possibility in his personal notebook.[12] Konstantin Tsiolkovsky published the idea in 1911.

For these drives, at the highest exhaust speeds, energetic efficiency and thrust are all inversely proportional to exhaust velocity. Their very high exhaust velocity means they require huge amounts of energy and thus with practical power sources provide low thrust, but use hardly any fuel.

For some missions, particularly reasonably close to the Sun, solar energy may be sufficient, and has very often been used, but for others further out or at higher power, nuclear energy is necessary; engines drawing their power from a nuclear source are called nuclear electric rockets.

With any current source of electrical power, chemical, nuclear or solar, the maximum amount of power that can be generated limits the amount of thrust that can be produced to a small value. Power generation adds significant mass to the spacecraft, and ultimately the weight of the power source limits the performance of the vehicle.

Current nuclear power generators are approximately half the weight of solar panels per watt of energy supplied, at terrestrial distances from the Sun. Chemical power generators are not used due to the far lower total available energy. Beamed power to the spacecraft shows some potential.

6 kW Hall thruster in operation at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Some electromagnetic methods:

In electrothermal and electromagnetic thrusters, both ions and electrons are accelerated simultaneously, no neutralizer is required.

Without internal reaction mass

See also: Zero-propellant maneuver

NASA study of a solar sail. The sail would be half a kilometer wide.

The law of conservation of momentum is usually taken to imply that any engine which uses no reaction mass cannot accelerate the center of mass of a spaceship (changing orientation, on the other hand, is possible). But space is not empty, especially space inside the Solar System; there are gravitation fields, magnetic fields, electromagnetic waves, solar wind and solar radiation. Electromagnetic waves in particular are known to contain momentum, despite being massless; specifically the momentum flux density P of an EM wave is quantitatively 1/c^2 times the Poynting vector S, i.e. P = S/c^2, where c is the velocity of light. Field propulsion methods which do not rely on reaction mass thus must try to take advantage of this fact by coupling to a momentum-bearing field such as an EM wave that exists in the vicinity of the craft. However, because many of these phenomena are diffuse in nature, corresponding propulsion structures need to be proportionately large.[original research?]

There are several different space drives that need little or no reaction mass to function. A tether propulsion system employs a long cable with a high tensile strength to change a spacecraft's orbit, such as by interaction with a planet's magnetic field or through momentum exchange with another object.[13] Solar sails rely on radiation pressure from electromagnetic energy, but they require a large collection surface to function effectively. The magnetic sail deflects charged particles from the solar wind with a magnetic field, thereby imparting momentum to the spacecraft. A variant is the mini-magnetospheric plasma propulsion system, which uses a small cloud of plasma held in a magnetic field to deflect the Sun's charged particles. An E-sail would use very thin and lightweight wires holding an electric charge to deflect these particles, and may have more controllable directionality.

As a proof of concept, NanoSail-D became the first nanosatellite to orbit Earth.[14][full citation needed] There are plans to add them[clarification needed] to future Earth orbit satellites, enabling them to de-orbit and burn up once they are no longer needed. Cubesail will be the first mission to demonstrate solar sailing in low Earth orbit, and the first mission to demonstrate full three-axis attitude control of a solar sail.[15]

Japan also launched its own solar sail powered spacecraft IKAROS in May 2010. IKAROS successfully demonstrated propulsion and guidance and is still flying today.

A satellite or other space vehicle is subject to the law of conservation of angular momentum, which constrains a body from a net change in angular velocity. Thus, for a vehicle to change its relative orientation without expending reaction mass, another part of the vehicle may rotate in the opposite direction. Non-conservative external forces, primarily gravitational and atmospheric, can contribute up to several degrees per day to angular momentum,[16] so secondary systems are designed to "bleed off" undesired rotational energies built up over time. Accordingly, many spacecraft utilize reaction wheels or control moment gyroscopes to control orientation in space.[17]

A gravitational slingshot can carry a space probe onward to other destinations without the expense of reaction mass. By harnessing the gravitational energy of other celestial objects, the spacecraft can pick up kinetic energy.[18] However, even more energy can be obtained from the gravity assist if rockets are used.

Planetary and atmospheric propulsion

A successful proof of concept Lightcraft test, a subset of beam-powered propulsion.

Launch-assist mechanisms

Main article: Space launch

The conceptual ocean-located Quicklauncher, a light-gas gun–based space gun

There have been many ideas proposed for launch-assist mechanisms that have the potential of drastically reducing the cost of getting into orbit. Proposed non-rocket spacelaunch launch-assist mechanisms include:

Airbreathing engines

Main article: Jet engine

Studies generally show that conventional air-breathing engines, such as ramjets or turbojets are basically too heavy (have too low a thrust/weight ratio) to give any significant performance improvement when installed on a launch vehicle itself. However, launch vehicles can be air launched from separate lift vehicles (e.g. B-29, Pegasus Rocket and White Knight) which do use such propulsion systems. Jet engines mounted on a launch rail could also be so used.

On the other hand, very lightweight or very high speed engines have been proposed that take advantage of the air during ascent:

  • SABRE - a lightweight hydrogen fuelled turbojet with precooler[19]
  • ATREX - a lightweight hydrogen fuelled turbojet with precooler[20]
  • Liquid air cycle engine - a hydrogen fuelled jet engine that liquifies the air before burning it in a rocket engine
  • Scramjet - jet engines that use supersonic combustion

Normal rocket launch vehicles fly almost vertically before rolling over at an altitude of some tens of kilometers before burning sideways for orbit; this initial vertical climb wastes propellant but is optimal as it greatly reduces airdrag. Airbreathing engines burn propellant much more efficiently and this would permit a far flatter launch trajectory, the vehicles would typically fly approximately tangentially to Earth's surface until leaving the atmosphere then perform a rocket burn to bridge the final delta-v to orbital velocity.

Planetary arrival and landing

A test version of the MARS Pathfinder airbag system

When a vehicle is to enter orbit around its destination planet, or when it is to land, it must adjust its velocity. This can be done using all the methods listed above (provided they can generate a high enough thrust), but there are a few methods that can take advantage of planetary atmospheres and/or surfaces.

  • Aerobraking allows a spacecraft to reduce the high point of an elliptical orbit by repeated brushes with the atmosphere at the low point of the orbit. This can save a considerable amount of fuel because it takes much less delta-V to enter an elliptical orbit compared to a low circular orbit. Because the braking is done over the course of many orbits, heating is comparatively minor, and a heat shield is not required. This has been done on several Mars missions such as Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and at least one Venus mission, Magellan.
  • Aerocapture is a much more aggressive manoeuver, converting an incoming hyperbolic orbit to an elliptical orbit in one pass. This requires a heat shield and much trickier navigation, because it must be completed in one pass through the atmosphere, and unlike aerobraking no preview of the atmosphere is possible. If the intent is to remain in orbit, then at least one more propulsive maneuver is required after aerocapture—otherwise the low point of the resulting orbit will remain in the atmosphere, resulting in eventual re-entry. Aerocapture has not yet been tried on a planetary mission, but the re-entry skip by Zond 6 and Zond 7 upon lunar return were aerocapture maneuvers, because they turned a hyperbolic orbit into an elliptical orbit. On these missions, because there was no attempt to raise the perigee after the aerocapture, the resulting orbit still intersected the atmosphere, and re-entry occurred at the next perigee.
  • A ballute is an inflatable drag device.
  • Parachutes can land a probe on a planet or moon with an atmosphere, usually after the atmosphere has scrubbed off most of the velocity, using a heat shield.
  • Airbags can soften the final landing.
  • Lithobraking, or stopping by impacting the surface, is usually done by accident. However, it may be done deliberately with the probe expected to survive (see, for example, Deep Impact (spacecraft)), in which case very sturdy probes are required.

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ENERGY: Cost of Fuel Cell Storage Powder Just Dropped Geometrically

fuelcell engine 7.jpgOur patented technology can help bring this opporetunity to market

Cost of Fuel Cells and Fuel Cell Fuel Storage Powder Just Dropped Geometrically Say Hello To Nanoparticle Catalysts by David L. Chandler A sample of a core-shell nanoparticle made by the researchers is shown in images made using scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Color images show where the different elements are …moreMaterials that speed up a chemical reaction without getting consumed in the process, known as catalysts, lie at the heart of many technologies, from vehicle emissions-control systems to high-tech devices such as fuel cells and electrolyzers. Unfortunately, catalysts are often pricey because they typically contain one or more noble metals, such as platinum or palladium, whose supplies are limited. Now, researchers at MIT have found a potential end-run around this limitation: a way to get the same amount of catalytic activity with as little as one-tenth the amount of precious metal. The key is to use an atomically-thin coating of noble metal over a tiny particle made of a much more abundant and inexpensive material: a kind of ceramic called transition metal carbide. While this idea has been the subject of extensive research, nobody had been able to find a way to get the coating to adhere to the underlying material, until now. And as a bonus, the coated particles actually outperform conventional catalysts (made completely of noble metal nanoparticles), providing greater longevity and better resistance to many unwanted phenomena that plague traditional noble metal catalysts. The new finding is being reported this week in the journal Science, in a paper by MIT doctoral student Sean Hunt, postdocs Maria Milina and Christopher Hendon, and Associate Professor Yuriy Román-Leshkov of the Department of Chemical Engineering. Since only the surface of catalytic particles is involved in accelerating a reaction, substituting the bulk of the particle with an inexpensive core can lead to drastic reductions in noble metal use without sacrificing performance. "For a long time, many researchers have been trying to find ways to make stable coatings of noble metals over earth-abundant cores," Román-Leshkov says. "There has been some success using metallic cores like nickel and cobalt, but the particles are not stable over long periods of time and end up alloying with the noble metal shell." Carbides, on the other hand, are resistant to corrosion and clustering, and also cannot alloy with noble metals, making them ideal core candidates. But noble metals – which get their name from their general reluctance to take part in any kind of chemical activity – don't easily bond with other materials, so producing coatings from them has been an elusive goal. At the same time, transition metal carbides are extremely difficult to engineer into nanoparticles with controlled properties. This is because they need high temperatures to force carbon into the metal lattice, which leads to particle clumping and surfaces contaminated with excess carbon layers. A simulation of the core-shell structure shows the arrangement of the different elements as they have separated themselves into the two regions.The key breakthrough, Hunt says, was to encapsulate the shell and core material precursors into a template made from silica. "This keeps them close together during the heat treatment, making them self-assemble into core-shell structures, conveniently solving both challenges at the same time," he says. The silica template could then be dissolved away using a simple room-temperature acidic treatment. In addition to greatly reducing the amount of precious metal required, the process turned out to have other important benefits as well. "We found that the self-assembly process is very general," says Hunt. "The reluctance of noble metals to bind to other materials means we could self-assemble incredibly complex catalytic designs with multiple precious metal elements present in the shell and multiple inexpensive elements present in the carbide core." This allowed the researchers to fine-tune the properties of the catalysts for different applications. For instance, using a nanoparticle with a platinum and ruthenium shell coating a carbide core made of tungsten and titanium, they designed a highly active and stable catalyst for possible applications in direct methanol fuel cells. After the catalyst was put through 10,000 electrochemical cycles, the new design still performed 10 times better than conventional nanoparticles after similar cycling. Yet another gain is that these nanoparticles are highly resistant to a problem that can plague other forms of noble-metal catalysts: "poisoning" of the surface by carbon monoxide. "This molecule can drastically curtail the performance of conventional catalysts by bonding to their surface and blocking further interaction, but on the core-shell catalysts, the carbon monoxide detaches more easily," Román-Leshkov says. While traditional hydrogen fuel cell catalysts can only tolerate 10 parts per million (ppm) of carbon monoxide, the researchers found that their core-shell catalysts could tolerate up to 1,000 ppm. Lastly, the researchers found that the core-shell structure was stable at high temperatures under various types of reaction conditions, while also remaining resistant to particle clumping. "Whereas in other classes of core-shell nanoparticles the shell dissolves into the core over time, noble metal shells are insoluble in carbide cores," says Hunt. "This is just another one of the many benefits that ceramic cores can have in designing active and stable catalysts." Although work for the translation of the new concept into a commercializable form is still preliminary, in principle it could make a big difference to applications such as fuel cells, where "it would overcome one of the main limitations that fuel cells are facing right now," Román-Leshkov says, namely the cost and availability of the needed precious metals. In fact, with the assistance of MIT's Translational Fellows Program, Milina has been focusing on the commercial aspects of the technology, identifying the potential market, value, and customers for these novel materials. "This is an important discovery regarding the potential applications of core-shell carbide particles coated with precious metal layers," says Jingguang Chen, a professor of chemical engineering at Columbia University, who was not involved in this work. "It would significantly reduce the amount of precious metals needed, and it could show better catalytic performance due to the synergistic interactions between the precious metal coating and the carbide core," he says. "Even though these advantages were predicted from previous studies of thin-film model systems, the current study demonstrates the feasibility of potential commercial applications using core shell structures." Explore further: A novel nanobio catalyst for biofuels More information: S. T. Hunt et al. Self-assembly of noble metal monolayers on transition metal carbide nanoparticle catalysts, Science (2016). DOI: 10.1126/science.aad8471 Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2016-05-nanoparticle-catalysts-precious-metals.html#jCp

READ MORE ON FUEL CELLS: >>> Countering_the_anti-hydrogen_trolls_and_shills_1-21.pdf

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ENERGY: Patented pumpable, hot-swap, solid-state energy storage solution. One of our multiple energy technology ownerships.

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Chem-Enhance: Our patented pumpable, hot-swap, solid-state energy storage solution. One of our multiple energy technology ownerships. The widespread use  of fossil fuels for energy and for powering internal combustion engine vehicles has created significant air quality problems in much of the industrialized world. Air pollution in turn is related to numerous health and environmental problems. A variety of alternative energy sources, such as nuclear, solar, geothermal and wind power have been proposed to reduce dependence on fossil fuels. However, drawbacks exist for each of these alternative energy sources. One of the most promising fossil fuel alternatives is hydrogen. Hydrogen can be combined with oxygen via combustion, or through fuel cell mediated oxidation/reduction reactions, to produce heat, or electrical power. After many  years of development, hydrogen-based fuel cells are a viable source of energy  and currently offer a number of advantages over petroleum-based internal  combustion engines, and the like. Often hydrogen-based fuel cells are more efficient, operate with less friction, operate at lower temperatures, are less  polluting, do not emit carbon dioxide (a suspected greenhouse gas), are quieter,  etc. As a fuel, hydrogen offers a number of advantages including being abundant, affordable, clean, renewable, and having favorable energy density. The primary  product of this reaction--water--is non-polluting and can be recycled to regenerate hydrogen and oxygen. Unfortunately, existing approaches for storing, distributing, and recovering hydrogen are extremely limiting, and are a significant impediment to the widespread utilization of hydrogen fuel, and the realization of the associated advantages. To illustrate some of the problems, consider one of the more prevalent approaches based on pressurized tanks or cylinders to store gaseous or liquefied hydrogen. This approach involves  producing hydrogen gas, liquefying or pressurizing the hydrogen into a  pressurized cylinder, shipping the cylinders to the point of use, and releasing  the hydrogen from the cylinders. Due to hydrogen's flammability characteristics  (e.g., flammability over a wide range of concentrations in air, and low spark temperatures), the storage, distribution, and use of hydrogen in such tanks is  highly regulated and controlled. In order to provide improved safety, and due to the high pressures involved, the tanks are often heavy, contain specialized explosion-proof components, and are correspondingly expensive. Nevertheless, even with these precautions, there is still a significant risk that hydrogen may be released, and explode, during loading, unloading, or distribution. Such risks render the approach generally unfavorable for powering motorized vehicles. Accordingly, the costs and dangers associated with these prior art techniques for storing and distributing hydrogen are prohibitive, and limit the utilization of hydrogen as fuel. Thus, the potential for using hydrogen as a fuel is great, but there are significant and limiting problems with conventional  approaches for storing, distributing, and recovering hydrogen. The novel features believed characteristic of the Lim-Pac technology are set forth in the appended data. The present Lim-Pac technology is illustrated by way of example, and not by way of limitation. DETAILED  DESCRIPTION Described herein are new and useful materials for  hydrogen storage. To aid in the understanding of the present Lim-Pac technology,  the following description provides specific details of presently preferred embodiments of the Lim-Pac technology. It will be apparent, however, to one  skilled in the art, that the present Lim-Pac technology may be practiced without  some of these specific details. As one example, numerous other hydrogen storage  materials known in the arts may replace the specific hydrogen storage material  disclosed herein. As another example, different techniques known in the arts may be used to form nanomaterials, substrates having hydrogen storage material deposits, and micro-sized containers having hydrogen storage materials therein.  Where the discussion refers to well-known structures and devices, block diagrams are used, in part, to demonstrate the broad applicability of the present Lim-Pac technology to a wide range of such structures and devices. The utility of hydrogen as a fuel depends to a large extent on storage and transportation of  the hydrogen. Solid-state metal hydride materials for storing hydrogen are known  in the arts. The metal hydride materials are inherently safer than tanks of compressed gas or cryogenic liquid. This is particularly true for on-board storage of hydrogen in a hydrogen-powered vehicle. However, a number of  significant problems with solid-state hydrogen storage materials remain. One problem is loss of hydrogen to the metal hydride subsurface (within the bulk  interior of the metal hydrides). The hydrogen within the interior is surrounded on all sides by metal atoms that form tight bonds to the hydrogen. These tight bonds need to be broken in order to recover the hydrogen. More energy is needed  to break these bonds, resulting in higher temperatures for recovery of hydrogen from the metal hydride. Additionally, the recovery of hydrogen is typically  incomplete due to some portion of the hydrogen remaining bound within the bulk interior of the metal hydride. The present inventors have discovered various hydrogen storage materials that largely overcome these prior art problems and significantly advance the art of hydrogen storage. The following sections of the detailed description of the Lim-Pac technology disclose the following materials for hydrogen storage: I. Hydrogen Storage Nanomaterials II. Particle Supports Having Hydrogen Storage Material Deposits III. Hydrogen Permeable Containers Having Hydrogen Storage Material Contained Therein I. Hydrogen Storage Nanomaterials The Lim-Pac technology of embodiments encompasses a hydrogen storage nanomaterial. The hydrogen storage nanomaterial may contain a metal that is capable of forming a metal hydride by combining with hydrogen. The nanomaterial may comprise discrete particles or clusters of particles (e.g., aggregates or agglomerates) having a substantial proportion of the metal atoms exposed at the surface. In one aspect the nanoparticles may have less than one thousand, or less than five thousand total metal atoms. The Lim-Pac technology of other embodiments encompasses a method for making the hydrogen storage nanomaterial. The nanomaterial may be formed by gas phase synthesis. Exemplary gas phase synthesis processes include gas phase condensation process and gas phase thermal decomposition. Exemplary gas phase condensation processes include thermal spray processes (e.g., plasma spray processes). As an example, the nanomaterial may be formed by condensing a hydrogen storage material atomized within a thermal or plasma spray. Hydrogen may be combined with the hydrogen storage material during the nanomaterial formation process, or subsequently, to form a hydrogen storing material. The hydrogen storing nanomaterials may be stored in cassettes, tanks, cylinders, rail cars, or other storage systems. The Lim-Pac technology of other embodiments encompasses recovering hydrogen from the nanomaterials, for example by heating, in order to supply hydrogen to a hydrogen utilization system such as a fuel cell, a hydrogen powered vehicle, or others known in the art.

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ENERGY: Solar-powered hydrogen production with improved efficiency

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Solar-powered hydrogen production with improved efficiency

 
 
Solar-powered hydrogen production with improved efficiency
Researchers in Japan have developed an efficient way of splitting water to produce hydrogen using energy from the sun. Their technique uses a combination of concentrated photovoltaic modules with electrochemical cells, and achieves a …more
Hydrogen could potentially provide a readily available, clean form of energy derived from solar power. To achieve this, scientists need to find a highly efficient, low-cost way of splitting water into its constituent parts of oxygen and hydrogen using the energy from the sun.
Now, Masakazu Sugiyama, Katsushi Fujii and colleagues at the University of Tokyo, together with co-workers at the University of Miyazaki, Japan, have found a way to produce at the highest yet, using a combination of concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) modules and electrochemical (EC) cells.
CPV technology generates electricity by using mirrors or lenses to focus an intense beam of sunlight onto tiny but highly efficient solar cells. The researchers used the most efficient CPV modules currently available, with an efficiency of around 31%. They used a InGaP/GaAs/Ge three-junction solar cell at the sunlight focus point inside the CPV. The EC cells, which provide the means for , were then connected in series to the CPV modules using copper wires. The team placed their combined device outdoors, and fed pure water into the EC cells. They found that their device was able to produce hydrogen at an efficiency of 24.4% – the highest level of solar-to-hydrogen efficiency yet achieved. Sugiyama and Fujii believe the direct connection between the high efficiency CPV modules and EC cells optimized the transfer from sunlight to hydrogen, and that further improvements of both components and their connecting parts will enhance the efficiency still further. The team are convinced that combining CPV modules with EC cells in this way is a realistic method of generating renewable hydrogen.
Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2015-12-solar-powered-hydrogen-production-efficiency.html#jCp

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ENERGY: TOP MODERN ENERGY SOLUTION

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THE TOP MODERN ENERGY SOLUTION IN THE WORLD!

Use solar, hydrogen, battery, petrol and other technologies in one system. This is your "forever energy solution". Award-winning, patented, Congressionally acclaimed, working energy solutions. Energy With Attitude TM The first company in the mobile fuel cell space. The originators of the mobile fuel cell power pack. "GREAT SCOTT!" TAKE A LOOK AT THIS VIDEO AND THEN CONTACT US TO SEE HOW TO MAKE YOUR FCV CAR FUEL, AT HOME, AND POWER YOUR CAR FOR TWO THOUSAND MILES WITHOUT HUNTING FOR A FUEL STATION: 

CLICK TO WATCH OR DOWNLOAD VIDEO >> : toyota fuel cell.mp4
 
OUR TECHNOLOGY NOW MATES TO, AND RANGE-EXTENDS, ANY HONDA, TOYOTA, FORD, BMW, HYUNDAI, KIA, MERCEDES, AND OTHER FUEL CELL VEHICLE, ANYWHERE IN THE WORLD! ADD THOUSANDS OF MILES OF RANGE AND NEVER HAVE TO WORRY ABOUT HUNTING FOR A FUEL STATION AGAIN!
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Is it clean and non-toxic? You can use solar, wind, bio-waste, geo-thermal, water and more, to generate free, or low cost, energy from domestic resources. Make your energy go farther, more safely, than any competing solution. 
 

 
THE LIM-PACTM POWER PACK BEATS EVERYTHING ON THE MARKET!  Organic-based battery, power source and fuel production in one system, scalable from pocket-size to freight-train size. In use, around the world, by NASA, all branches of the armed forces, the medical industry, camping industries and organizations in every country. Patented, Fuel Cell-based, Clean, Efficient, Non-toxic, Domestic sourced, Instant recharge, Sustainable, Non-explosive, Low Cost, Light-weight, Longer duration, Self-repairing, Longer-range; Power from Water, Solar and Organic Waste Materials.
  • Lasts longer than any other commercial battery.
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Nothing on Earth can offer you these advantages:
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  • Tens of thousands of examples of the technology, now in use, via land, sea, air and space.
  • Can be easily manufactured at low cost with simple factory systems already on-line.
  • Protected by the top mobile energy patent suite of issued patents, and multiple pending patents, in this market, in the world.
- One Cube - Every Power Need  - Now featuring some of the most potent competitor protection in the world. Competitors spent over TWO BILLION dollars trying to halt this technology with lobbying, shills, "doubt articles" and nay-saying. Many of them failed, went out of business, and were indicted for misbehaviours. After all that, we are still around, they are failing, and we now have government support globally, and dramatically increasing demand for our technology. - Now seeking licensing and manufacturing partners. Over 100 factories now capable of contracting for your order. - Consumers: Contact your Best Buy, Radio Shack, REI, Target, Walmart, Safeway, Walgreens, Piggley Wiggly, Rite Aid, or other retailer, and ask them to place a manufacturing order, with us, for Lim-Pac's. We do not sell direct-to-consumer, but ask your local retailer to place an order with us, so you can conveniently buy Lim-Pac's in your neighbourhood . We are recipients of federal and industry commendations, federal grants, historical patents, federal contracts, and U.S. Congressional commendation in the Federal Register, for creating of this technology. Our system is an instant-swap/recharge battery that runs longer than almost any other battery, can use almost any one of over 3000 chemical configurations, leaves only drinkable water as it’s waste, needs no new infrastructure and can be created entirely from domestic materials. NO NEW INFRASTRUCTURE COSTS ARE REQUIRED. THE INFRASTRUCTURE FOR LIM-PAC IS ALREADY IN PLACE IN YOUR COUNTRY! DOUBLE THE RANGE OF YOUR ELECTRIC OR HYBRID VEHICLE. QUADRUPLE THE USE TIME OF YOUR DEVICE WITHOUT EXPOSING YOURSELF TO DANGEROUS TOXINS.  ENSURE YOUR DOMESTIC SECURITY!!!  ARE ALL THE SOURCES, OF YOUR OTHER ENERGY OPTIONS, NOW WAR-ZONES? BRING ENERGY HOME. USE LIM-PAC'S TO GET POWERED UP, WITHIN YOUR NATIONAL BORDERS. OVER 220 MILLION LOCATIONS TO RE-CHARGE YOUR LIM-PAC EXIST TODAY, INCLUDING YOUR HOME OR OFFICE! SEE SOME OF OUR ISSUED PATENTS. (CLICK HERE) Our patented technology scales to any size to provide the best power solutions for: - Portable Power- Electronics, Emergency, Mobile - Vehicle Power- EV, CNG, Hybrid, RV, Tactical - Stationary Power- Community, Field Unit, Back-up, Remote Housing Why Is This Better?: - Longer Vehicle Range Than Any Other Solution. - Longer Electronic Device Operation Than Any Other Solution. - Less Carcinogenic Than Any Other Solution. - Faster Recharge Than Any Other Solution. - Provides Greater National Security Than Any Other Solution. - Easier To Produce And Manufacture Domestically Than Any Other Solution. - Reduces The Weight, Decreases The Cost And Increases The Range Of EV's Better Than Any Other Solution. - More Worldwide Recharge/Refuel Locations Than Any Other Solution. - Eliminates The Need For Extension Cords More Than Any Other Solution. - Able To Produce More Power From A Clean Grid Than Any Other Solution. - Easier To Glass-Encapsulate, To Avoid Accidents, Than Any Other Solution. - Better Able To Load-Balance Energy Demands Than Any Other Solution. - Least Toxic Fuel Than Any Other Solution. - Better Able To Provide Power From Within National Borders Than Any Other Solution. - Exceeds The Metrics Of All Competing Energy Solutions. - Our Patents Cover Over 3000 Energy Storage Chemistries. - And Many More Reasons... Tested globally in thousands of test deployments, millions of miles of auto use and in space. We license and design portable power, electric vehicle power and range extenders. We are a developer of clean, green, safe, recyclable energy solutions. We hold one of the premier patent portfolios for in-house engineered energy storage. We are an expert in time-shifted energy deployment.
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Eliminates the extension cord. Featuring: The safest chemical energy storage, via our glass encapsulation technology, for over 3000+ different energy storage compounds Turn Toxic Coal Ashe into Clean Energy Storage material using our patented technology. Find out about our solution to turn waste "Powder into Power"! Ask us about licensing or partnering. 
 
 

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SUPPORTED BY THE U.S.CONGRESS, THE PUBLIC AND INDUSTRY -
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Clean, mobile, long-lasting, local power.

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The energy density of even today's most extreme batteries is less than that of our technology. In other words: there is no other battery solution on the market today that can beat the patented system energy density capability and features. Our systems can deploy end-to-end, zero-GHG, clean, SAFE, energy paths without the use of "dirty power" sources. Our automotive technology eliminates the need to get stuck sitting around in "out-in-the-sticks" towns, staring at the ground, waiting for your car to charge. The US Department of Energy has released its final report that collected data from more than 180 fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) over a six year period from 2005–2011. Within this period the vehicles made more than 500,000 trips and travelled more than 3.6 million miles, implementing more than 33,000 fill-ups at refuelling stations across the USA. The project found that these vehicles achieved more than twice the efficiency of today’s gasoline vehicles with refuelling times of five minutes average. The report comes as the world’s major auto-makers prepare to commercially deploy FCEV from as early as next year and is a positive reminder of the benefits the technology can offer. Our technology includes patent-protected glass-encapsulation technology which prevents solvents and moisture from degrading the energy storage materials. A leader in innovation and the delivering of the key solution for reducing dependence on foreign oil; Our engineers are the inventors of patented hot-swap transportable energy storage, the Fuel Cassettes®; Endless-EV™ range-extenders, electric vehicle power plants, and gas station-pumpable encapsulation bead storage compounds. We deploy proprietary solar, inductive, wind, fuel cell and battery hybridization which are technologies that have been proven for decades by NASA, the Department of Defense, the aerospace industry, Federal energy agencies and in universities around the world. Power resources for:  Homes, offices, special events, hosting centers, portable soldier power, rack-mount markets, cell tower back-up, home power, forklift power, portable generators, boating power, camping power, portable electronics, aircraft power, neighborhood power, co-generation power, solar panel intermittency elimination, wind intermittency elimination, and back-up power. Winner: Congressional commendation & federal grant award. Awardee: Multiple issued U.S. patents. We hold patents on all core technology disclosed on this website. Be prepared for any disaster with our power technology.

Why Does Elon Musk Spend So Much Time Sabotaging and Nay-Saying Hydrogen? Take A Look at This:
Countering_the_anti-hydrogen_trolls_and_shills_1-21.pdf

 

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ENERGY: Market Updates On Mobile FCE Power

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Market News JOIN THE HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF ORGANIZATIONS, COMPANIES, GROUPS, ADVOCACIES AND CLIENTS THAT ARE DELIVERING THE FUTURE; TODAY! 

 


Honda's vision of the future -- a car powered by hydrogen

Michael Taylor

  • Honda Motor Company demonstrated its next-generation FCX Concept fuel cell car at Laguna Seca Raceway in Monterey, Calif. on Tuesday, Nov. 14, 2006. The vehicle runs on compressed hydrogen gas and can reach speeds up to 100 mph.
 PAUL CHINN/The Chronicle
 Ran on: 11-15-2006
 Honda's FCX hydrogen-powered car runs around the Laguna Seca Raceway near Monterey. Its fuel cell converts hydrogen into electricity, heat and water. The electricity powers the car. Photo: PAUL CHINN

 

Honda Motor Company demonstrated its next-generation FCX Concept fuel cell car at Laguna Seca Raceway

The future of driving, if Honda has anything to say about it, came to a Monterey County race track Tuesday in the form of a dark red sedan that is slated to be the first fuel cell car on the planet to come off a production line.

The Honda FCX looks like a slightly futuristic version of a blend of cars, especially those made by Honda Motor Co. But by one particular yardstick, the car is special -- it doesn't run on fossil fuel. Instead, a fuel cell car uses hydrogen.

"This is the first purpose-built fuel cell vehicle to be put on the road in the hands of retail customers," said Stephen Ellis, fuel cell marketing manager for American Honda Motor Co. "It's not a car that is remade from some other platform."

Fuel cell cars have been made by several of the world's biggest carmakers, but by and large they were cobbled together from an existing gas- or electric-powered vehicle. Honda itself earlier made a homely looking fuel cell car, one of which has been in use by a Los Angeles family for more than a year.

Honda says that within two years it plans to produce and lease to the public an untold number of cars based on the concept car the company put on display Tuesday. Tentative plans call for leasing the car for perhaps $600 or $700 a month. Automakers typically lease experimental cars to the public rather than sell them outright as a way of retaining control of them.

On Tuesday, Honda rented Laguna Seca Raceway to show off the only two FCX cars the company says exist in the world. Reporters were allowed to take the cars -- each is worth as much as $2 million, according to industry insiders -- around a portion of the race track, past signs encouraging "acceleration," "braking" and other exhortations.

The car performed like any moderately sporty sedan. It is quiet, it has a low center of gravity, and it's relatively fast.

What makes the car unlike any other sedan is its fuel cell stack, a sandwich of plates that generate electricity through an electro-chemical process using a combination of hydrogen and oxygen. The front wheels are driven by an electric motor. The only emission is water vapor.

The hydrogen can be refined from a number of sources, including coal, natural gas and methane.

Being a concept car, the FCX at the race track was far from the finished product. Every time a driver mentioned a possible problem, the reply was that it's a concept car and the problem will be fixed when it's in regular production.

A fuel cell car in regular production? Honda knows it faces enormous barriers as it tries to introduce a completely new way to propel a car.

The biggest problem is where to fuel it. Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger's long-touted "hydrogen highway" is behind schedule, said Honda's FCX product planner, Christine Ra.

Still, a few stations accommodate fuel cell cars, and more are planned, said Catherine Dun- woody, executive director of the California Fuel Cell Partnership, a group of companies that promotes the technology.

"There are 23 in California, mostly in Southern California," Dunwoody said Tuesday, "and 14 more are on the way. Most fuel cell cars fuel at one or two stations, and we need to move to the point where any car can find a station."

UC Davis environmental science Professor Joan Ogden, who specializes in fuel cells, said a study she has seen says that in the next 10 years, there will be a "roll-out of hydrogen cars and stations" in California.

Others think it will take longer.

"Fuel cell cars have real promise to do double duty -- help the climate and end our oil addiction," said David Friedman, research director for vehicle programs at the Union of Concerned Scientists in Washington, D.C. "But that future is 20 to 30 years away. All the car companies are working really hard to make fuel cell vehicles a reality, and they deserve praise. Yet there are real hurdles to overcome."

Friedman cited problems of making a fuel cell system start in minus-40 degree weather and making the systems as durable as possible.

"We have to get a fuel cell vehicle that is durable and cheap enough," Friedman said, "and make sure the hydrogen is clean enough. No one will cheer if, at the end of the day, we make all our hydrogen from coal and melt the planet."

As for the economics, Honda Vice President Ben Knight said a fuel cell car can get the equivalent of a gasoline-powered car's 65 miles per gallon. An FCX filled with 8.8 pounds of hydrogen can go about 270 miles, he said.

One unknown is how much a hydrogen retailer -- probably one of the big oil companies -- would charge for hydrogen. Honda also is developing a home refueling station that draws natural gas from a home's utility supply and processes it for hydrogen use.

Then there is the real-world question of what a fuel cell car is like when you have one, day in and day out. Jon Spallino knows.

In June 2005, American Honda began leasing a 2005 Honda FCX to Spallino, a 41-year-old Redondo Beach businessman with a wife and two daughters. The Spallinos became what apparently is the only American family to use a fuel cell car every day, for such things, Spallino says, as "going to the shopping center, to the soccer field and to ballet lessons."

Asked what stood out, Spallino said, "the lack of trouble. I expected technical problems. All that happened was one flat tire."

He said he fills up the car about once a week at Honda's U.S. headquarters in Torrance, and otherwise it behaves like a normal car. Except that he does get a lot of attention, given that "Honda Fuel Cell Powered FCX" is written in giant letters on the side of the car.

"I finally ended up carrying a stack of brochures explaining the car," Spallino said. "All of that was part of the fun."


Fuel cells: electric power from hydrogen fuel

Fuel cells create electricity through an electrochemical process that combines hydrogen and oxygen. Vehicles running on fuel cells would need to be supplied with gaseous hydrogen extracted from a hydrocarbon fuel, such as coal, natural gas, or methane. Honda is developing a home refueling station that draws gas from the home's utility supply and processes it for hydrogen use.

How fuel cells work

Hydrogen fuel is fed into the anode of the fuel cell. Helped by a catalyst, hydrogen atoms are split into electrons and protons.

Electrons are channeled through a circuit to produce electricity.

Protons pass through the proton exchange membrane.

Oxygen enters the cathode and combines with the electrons and protons to form water.

Water vapor and heat are released as byproducts of the reaction.

 


  Analyst View: Fuel Cell Vehicles – Not a Dream but a Plan Download as PDF The European Hydrogen Road Tour 2012 has had a clear message: ‘hydrogen vehicles are already here and ready for mass production from 2014/15onwards’. Seven vehicles – from Daimler, Honda, Hyundai and Toyota – participated in a number of events during the tour, with the most buzz generated around the Paris Motor Show. The tour culminates in Copenhagen today amid a flurry of announcements from the automakers about their fuel cell plans. The reaction of some parts of the media to these is perhaps best encapsulated by an article published in the MIT Technology Review on Monday. Titled ‘Hydrogen Cars: A Dream That Won't  Die’ it discusses the renewed interest of automakers in hydrogen fuel cell cars “as the auto industry wrestles with the limitations of battery-poweredelectric vehicles”. Automakers are rather less whimsical than that. Interest has certainly been revived – but it is the interest of the press and the public, not that of the automakers, that needed reviving. For the most part, automakers’ investment in fuel cell technology over the last few years has been relatively steadfast. To call this a ‘dream’ is to mischaracterise long-term strategic planning. It is true, however, that plans sometimes have to change. While battery electric vehicles have been effective in demonstrating the reality of the electric car, they are not yet living up to expectations. Talking to   Reuters  ahead  of the Paris Motor Show, Hyundai’s fuel cell group director Tae Won Lim said,   "Battery electric car makers entered the market too early without  resolving problems such as range anxiety and costs. It was a hasty approach”. Few can really dispute that. Nissan executive Andy Palmer told   reporters last week that sales of the all-electric Nissan Leaf continue to disappoint: “The   uptake isn’t as strong as we first hoped”. GM saw record sales of its Chevrolet Volt in August, shifting 2,800 – but it appears this is off the back of steep   discounts, cutting the cost of the car by almost 25%. Sales still fall well   short of expectations: GM hoped to sell 45,000 this year. Toyota, meanwhile, has dramatically scaled back its plans for battery vehicles. The eQ, Toyota’s all-electric version of the iQ initially slated for mass production, will now see a very limited production run of about 100. "The current capabilities of electric vehicles do not meet society's needs, whether it may   be the distance the cars can run, or the costs, or how it takes a long time to charge," Takeshi Uchiyamada, Toyota's Vice Chairman commented on the 24th of September. Enter the fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV). In an interview five days later, Gerald Killmann of Toyota Europe said that the company is planning to begin series production of a fuel cell Toyota Prius in 2014, and from 2015 to market the car in Japan, the US and Europe. Of course challenges remain; Toyota is relying on policy support to ensure these early markets have sufficient hydrogen refuelling infrastructure, while the company itself needs to bring the cost of the car down substantially, cutting 30 to 40% off the current ‘price’ of just under €100,000 – but this is clearly considered  achievable. As for pure electric vehicles, Toyota, Killmann said, will revisit battery cars “when better batteries become available”. In fact, in the space  of the week leading up to the Paris Motor Show, Toyota, Hyundai and Honda all reconfirmed their long-stated intentions to commercially launch FCEV in the very near future. Toyota announcedan improved stack, to be used   in the sedan-type FCV scheduled for launch around 2015 (exactly how this fits in with plans for the fuel cell Prius must still be clarified – Toyota has also been seen road testing its fuel cell technology using its existing Lexus platform). At a press conference Honda’s President and CEO, Takanobu Ito, reiterated the company’s plans to release its next-generation Fuel Cell Vehicle “sequentially in Japan, the US and Europe starting in 2015”. He also said the company regards FCEV as “the ultimate   environmentally-responsible vehicle”. And Hyundai announced it will begin small series production of its fuel cell ix35 in December of this year, building up to 1,000 ix35 FCEV on the road by 2015 and mass production beyond that. Hyundai’s fuel cell programme was launched in 1998, targeting series production of fuel cell vehicles by the end of 2012 and consumer sales by 2015, and it has kept a remarkably steady eye on this target. Daimler has been no less committed to fuel cell technology, and is something of a veteran of taking it on the road: in the first half of 2011 the Mercedes  F-Cell World Drive  took three Mercedes-Benz B-Class F-CELL fuel cell vehicles around the globe.It was a convincing demonstration of the readiness of the technology – and theneed for hydrogen refuelling infrastructure. Daimler has also been targeting a 2014/15 commercial release date and appears to be on-track. During the course of the 2012 European Hydrogen Road Tour, a Daimler   representative again confirmed in a panel discussion that the company plans to commercially launch its fuel cell vehicle around 2015, although this was   not accompanied by an official statement. Daimler has since early 2010 had a strategic partnership with Renault–Nissan, and rumours emerged in the German press last week that this collaboration may now be extended to fuel cell technology. If so, it wouldn’t be a first for Daimler: the company has been working closely with Ford on fuel cell development in the form of the Automotive Fuel Cell Cooperation Corp. (AFCC). Ford’s FCEV commercialisation plans are longer term, but Nissan has been more prominent of late, announcing a next-generation fuel cell stack last year and showing its TeRRA fuel cell concept car at the Paris Motor Show this year. Battery electric vehicles in their current incarnation are less than practical for most drivers on three counts: range, ‘refuelling’ time, and cost. Fuel cell technology will solve the first two of those problems. As for the third, costs of both batteries and fuel cells will come down and are  expected to converge with the costs of other drivetrain technologies around 2025. Why pursue electromobility at all? Increased efficiency of the internal combustion engine, biofuels and hybrids will take us a considerable way towards decarbonising transportation, but a completely new form of propulsion will be needed to take us all the way. Automakers invest in fuel cell technology to ensure they stay in the game in coming decades. (For an overview ofautomotive fuel cell technology development and the various automakers’ plans for commercialisation, have a look at our recent report ‘Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles: The Road Ahead’.) www.fuelcelltoday.com


Powering the future

Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles could change mobility forever

Around the world, efforts are being made to harness the power of hydrogen,
the most abundant element in the universe.
Recognizing hydrogen's vast potential as a clean energy source,
Toyota is actively developing and producing fuel cell vehicles (FCV).
We believe hydrogen can help us contribute to
the next 100 years of the automobile.

Development Concept

MIRAI

Need to build a hydrogen-based society

Zero CO2 emissions

Using hydrogen results in zero CO2 emissions.
The chemical reaction H2+½O2→H2O points the way to a brighter future.

Stable eco-friendly supply

  • Can be produced from a wide range of primary energy sources

    Because hydrogen can be produced from a wide range of primary energy sources, unlike fossil fuels, there is no need to worry about resources becoming depleted, meaning that a stable supply can be relied on.

  • Energy for local production and local use

    Through hydrolysis, electricity generated from renewable energy sources (wind power, solar power, etc.) can be stored as hydrogen for power supply. By additionally returning surplus electricity to the grid, power wastage can be prevented. Establishing a system of this kind can also reduce energy risk on islands and in other remote areas.

  • Canceling out uctuations in energy supply from renewable sources

    The amount of energy that can be generated by renewable sources fluctuates greatly under the infuence of natural conditions. By converting the electricity generated to hydrogen, it can be stored and easily transported to meet demand.

Fuel cell vehicles are leading innovation
in two key areas.

Depending on how we embrace fuel cell vehicles and hydrogen as an energy source,
the potential results could change the world and bring about innovations that far exceed even those of the Prius.

Toyota sees great potential in hydrogen
and fuel cell vehicles.

What is a fuel cell vehicle?

Through the chemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen, fuel cell vehicles generate electricity to power a motor. Instead of gasoline they are fuelled by hydrogen, an environment-friendly energy source that can be produced from a variety of raw materials.
Toyota's efforts to make sustainable mobility a reality with hydrogen started in 1992, even before the release of the Prius. In 2002, Toyota began the world's first limited sales of a fuel cell vehicle, the “Toyota FCHV”, in Japan and the U.S. Toyota has also made use of its hybrid vehicle technology in the development of fuel cell vehicles.

Toyota Fuel Cell System

Hydrogen and oxygen from the air are pulled into the fuel cells in the FC Stack, and electricity is created through a chemical reaction. The result: a responsive—and emission-free—drive.

  • History of development
  • Uses of fuel cell technology

Fuel cell vehicles: not just eco-cars

In addition to excellent environmental credentials, fuel cell vehicles are fun to drive, and also offer convenience and performance.

Pioneering development, starting with the fuel cell manufacturing process.

MIRAI The Mirai, the world's first fuel cell vehicle
for the mass market

The Toyota Fuel Cell System (TFCS) moves the Mirai

The Mirai features the Toyota Fuel Cell System, which combines fuel cell technology with hybrid technology.
The system is more energy efficient than internal combustion engines, and offers excellent environmental performance without emitting CO2 or other harmful substances during driving. At the same time, the system gives vehicles convenience on a par with conventional gasoline engine vehicles, thanks to a cruising range*1 of roughly 650 km and a refueling time of about three minutes*2.
In addition, the Mirai can serve as a high capacity power supply during emergencies. It is capable of supplying roughly 60 kWh*3 of electricity, with a maximum DC power output of 9 kW*4. When a separately-sold power supply unit is connected, the Mirai converts the DC power from the CHAdeMO power socket located inside the trunk to AC power and can power a vehicle-to-home*5 system or a vehicle-to-load system. Consumer electronics can also be connected directly and used from the interior accessory socket (AC 100 V, 1,500 W).

*1 According to Toyota measurements based on the Japanese Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism's JC08 test cycle; measured by Toyota when refueling at a hydrogen station supplying hydrogen at a pressure of 70 MPa under the SAEe J2601 standard conditions (ambient temperature: 20° C, hydrogen tank pressure when fueled: 10 MPa). Differing amounts of hydrogen will be supplied to the tank if refueling is carried out at hydrogen stations with differing specifications, and the cruising range will therefore also differ accordingly. It is estimated that a cruising range of approximately 700 km can be achieved when fueled under the conditions above at new hydrogen stations scheduled to begin operation from FY2016. Possible cruising range may vary considerably due to usage conditions (weather, traffic congestion, etc.) and driving methods (quick starts, air conditioning, etc.).
*2 As measured by Toyota when refueling at a hydrogen station supplying hydrogen at a pressure of 70 MPa under the SAEe J2601 Standard conditions (ambient temperature: 20°C, hydrogen tank pressure when fueled: 10 MPa). Time will vary depending on hydrogen fueling pressure and ambient temperature.
*3 After DC/AC conversion by power supply unit. Power supply capacity varies according to power supply unit conversion efficiency, amount of remaining hydrogen and power consumption.
*4 Power supply capability varies according to power supply unit specifications (amount of power supplied cannot exceed power supply unit specifications).
*5 Specific residential wiring is required.

A new driving sensation

Fuel cell vehicles offer excellent drivability. This is the result of the fusion of a painstaking design process. The Mirai offers a low center of gravity, aerodynamic performance, optimal weight layout, and a highly rigid body. These features, combined with the car's engineless, motor-driven performance, create a driving experience that is smooth, safe, quiet and fun.

Design based on experience and knowledge

The unique and impressive design of the Mirai is perfect for a fuel cell vehicle:
it reflects the revolutionary nature of the technology.

Toyota's in-house fuel cell technology development

Whereas many manufacturers procure high-pressure hydrogen tanks, etc., from outside sources, Toyota is developing its FC system (including the FC stack) in-house.
Our dedication to manufacturing always drives us to do as much as we can ourselves.

Providing free access to fuel cell-related patent licenses

Toyota has given free access to approximately 5,680 fuel cell-related patent licenses (as of January 6, 2015). To promote the widespread early adoption of fuel cell vehicles and build a hydrogen-based society, Toyota is committed to making further active contributions.

FCV video gallery

  • New fuel cell stack fitted on the MIRAI

    Here we present the mechanisms and chemical reactions involved in generating electricity.

    (3min 39ec)

  • Driving performance and quietness of the MIRAI

    Here we present the new sensation of motor-driven response and exceptional quietness, among other features.

    (2min 22sec)

The FCV, which is fueled by the clean energy provided by hydrogen. This is one of Toyota's solutions for one hundred years in the future.

Environmental Technology Headlines

Lineup

Technologies Supporting Eco-Cars


 


Harsh competitor: An electric car company promoter spent tens of millions of dollars trying to nay-say fuel cells because he knew that his battery packs had failed, on every single metric, when put side-by-side with fuel cell electric systems. Take a look at the results of numerous studies comparing our technology to his: CLICK TO DOWNLOAD THE STUDIES CLICK TO DOWNLOAD A STUDY BY UNIVERSITY OF NEVADA STUDENTS  


Countering_the_anti-hydrogen_trolls_and_shills_1-21.pdf


 

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TELECOM: DATA CENTER POWER ADVANTAGES OF THE FUEL CASSETTE

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ENERGY: More Advantages For Our Solid State Fuel Cell Power

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  • Unlike competing solutions, the only exhaust material is drinkable water
  • Unlike competing solutions, you can get all of the fuel raw stock right inside your own state
  • Unlike competing solutions, there is no need to invade any other country for the materials
  • Unlike competing solutions, the exhaust material does not cause cancer
  • In a fire, it dissipates faster than any other fuel and, essentially, self-extinguishes
  • All of the infrastructure, has already been built, globally, and it's just sitting there, waiting for YOU; Unlike competing solutions.
  • All of the pretend arguments of the competitive fuels have already been fully laid to rest (see the film, on NETFLIX, "Merchants of Doubt")
  • The largest government laws, mandates and treaties, in history, support this technology more than any other energy solution, on Earth; Unlike competing solutions
  • We have issued patents on technologies so good, that the government even confirmed that our products were the best; Unlike competing solutions
  • Our energy sources are clean and sustainable, for the longest projections into the future
  • We won patents, Congressional awards, government grants, customer raves and historical competitive battles

Even More Technology Advantages - Industry Specific Advantages: - Data Center Power - Vehicle Power - Grid Energy Time Shifting Overall Advantages: Competitors batteries catch on fire quite a bit, and have been the result of many more fires and explosions than hydrogen. AT&T 's U-verse TV service has had an exploding battery problem, making it necessary for the firm to replace 17,000 backup batteries in its nationwide network.  Our energy storage technology compounds can be pumped into the system via a gas pump at a common gas station, as one option. Our energy storage systems hold the patent on encapsulating chemistry in glass beads or cases to protect it from water and tainting of the material purity. Our energy storage technology systems are not at-risk regarding geopolitical tensions and resource cut-offs as coal, petroleum and nuclear; thus providing a safer energy solution for each nation that deploys it. Our energy storage technology can take the toxic waste material from coal plants: fly ash, and turn it into a safe energy storage solution. This makes a bad material into a good material. Our energy storage power systems run many, many times longer and provide massively greater range per charge than batteries. The run time of batteries constantly shortens while Our energy storage technology does not. Batteries have a problematic “Memory Effect” while Our energy storage technology does not. Our energy storage technology is "instant charge" via hot-swap while battery packs require hours to recharge. Our energy storage systems have an extensive charge life while batteries have a much shorter end-of-life metric. The cost per 300 mile range for a our energy storage technology car system is far lower than a battery system. Our energy storage powered car TODAY that will drive 300 miles without a refill is 50% or less of the same metric of a battery car that will drive 300 miles without a refill. Our energy storage system can be charged from a completely clean home energy system but batteries need to be charged from a “sour-grid”, toxic power or "dirty energy". Our energy storage technology can make energy at home. Batteries usually cannot.Our energy storage technology has a far higher storage density than batteries. Our energy storage systems are far less bulky than batteries. Energy can be stored for a much longer period of time in Our energy storage than in competitors batteries. The weight of competing batteries is so great that it reduces the range of travel of a vehicle which causes the use of wasteful energy just to haul the batteries along with the car. In other words, the more batteries to add to an electric car to increase range, the less range you get. This is not the case with our energy storage technology. Our energy storage systems weigh far less than batteries for equal range, and go over tens times longer, and further. The disposal of many batteries, after use, presents a deadly environmental issue while our energy storage technology does not. Our energy storage technology does not self discharge like batteries. Competitors batteries cause a greater carbon footprint than our energy storage technology. Batteries require coal be burned to charge them while our technology does not. One pound of coal has roughly 14,000 Btu of chemical energy in it. When everything operates well, all that turns out to be generally around 30% efficient, meaning that 30% of the chemical energy that started out in the coal has become actual electricity. Our new production systems are up to 93% efficient. We have the lowest Infrastructure cost per cubic foot and per amp, than any competitor. In an accident, some competitors gas pressure tanks could shoot, like a rocket, through hundreds of innocent bystanders killing or maiming most of them. Our energy storage technology does not require pressure tanks. In an accident, the pressure wave from pressure tanks crush internal organs of nearby people. Our energy storage technology does not use pressure tanks. In an accident, the pressure wave from pressure tanks shoots shrapnel through the neighbourhood like a hand grenade. Our energy storage technology does not require pressure tanks. The ability to ship via UPS/FEDEX/US MAIL does not exist for many of our competitors but our energy storage can be shipped and mailed Total global and national infrastructure for all our energy storage distribution is already in place. Insurance costs are far less for our technology. The ability of competitor's pressure tanks. to crush the foot of workers, thus increasing insurances costs, does not exist with our energy storage technology.. Time to refuel vehicle is only seconds for our energy storage systems while it is many. many times longer for competitors. Only our energy storage products have the ability to be hand carried while many competitors require require forklifts to transport. Only the our energy storage products are On-Demand energy solutions with patented systems. Our energy storage products have less bulkiness than batteries or pressure tanks. Our energy storage products are fully scalable while tanks are not very scalable. Our energy storage products have better source-to-consumption efficiency metrics. Our energy storage products require no special delivery vehicles and can use any common carrier while competitors cannot. Pressure tanks require special construction factories while our energy storage technology requires no special construction factories High pressure is required for tanks while, little, or no pressure is required for our energy storage technology. Skin cutting on refueling or refilling occurs with tanks but not with our energy storage technology. Your finger could freeze and snap off using liquid hydrogen but not with our energy storage technology. Our energy storage is intelligent and monitors itself but tanks do not have this ability. our energy storage fuel can notifiy you when you need more fuel but tanks do not. Our energy storage fuel advises you of its health and purity but tanks do not. The overall transport safety of our energy storage beats tanks by at least a magnitude. Our energy storage technology uses off-the-shelf, domestically available scalable components but tanks require special service safety parts. Our energy storage technology has fully rechargeable, recyclable, pressure variable output but tanks do not. Our energy storage technology use may improve insurance premiums but tanks will always increase premiums. Factory man-power productivity increases using our energy storage at the plant-level over tanks All stored H2 is live and explosive with tanks but not with our energy storage Our energy storage increases balance-of-plant metric but tanks reduce the metrics. Our energy storage source compound agnostic but tanks are fixed to source compound. Our energy storage is fully patent protected and tanks are not. Our energy storage base hardware investment is future-protected while tanks are only partially protected. Our energy storage technology is fully systemically modular while tanks are fixed. Our energy storage technology fits the box-like form factor of car while tanks dictate their location. Tanks require an extensive safety compound required around customer storage area while our energy storage does not. Tanks need an annual X-Ray and material audit while our energy storage technology does not. Our energy storage technology does not flow across the ground and surfaces in a fire like napalm like liquid hydrogen. Our energy storage technology does not flow across the ground and surfaces in a fire like napalm like gasoline. Gasoline service stations are one of the primary sources and causes of cancer. Our energy storage eliminates the need to go to a service station. The gasoline and associated vapors in a vehicle while you drive cause cancer, brain damage and numerous health issues and our energy storage technology does not. The residue after use of gasoline causes numerous environmental damage issues and our energy storage technology does not. Gasoline is increasing in cost and H2 sources and end product are decreasing in cost.

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ENERGY: Seawater Offers a Brand New Way to Produce Clean Energy

This works with our technology:

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Zain Charkawi
 
As the world starts to move away from using fossil fuels towards cleaner and greener forms of energy, there seems to be more and more alternatives arising from somewhat unlikely sources. For instance, scientists have just found a way to use seawater as a clean and renewable energy source. By utilizing sunlight, scientists have found that they can turn seawater into hydrogen peroxide (H202), a chemical compound that can then be used to generate electricity in fuel cells. One of the researchers responsible for this new study had this to say about their new find:
Opening quote
Utilization of solar energy as a primary energy source has been strongly demanded to reduce emissions of harmful and/or greenhouse gases produced by burning fossil fuels. However, large fluctuation of solar energy depending on the length of the daytime is a serious problem. To utilize solar energy in the night time, solar energy should be stored in the form of chemical energy and used as a fuel to produce electricity
Closing quote
Some may be asking why seawater? Couldn't freshwater work just as well? The answer to that is a firm "no," as gaseous hydrogen production from pure water has a lower solar energy conversion and turns out to be much more difficult to store and transport. For a comparison, one of the tests conducted showed that after 24 hrs, the H202 concentration in seawater reached 48 millimolar; the concentration in pure water only reached 2 millimolar. Researchers found that the negatively charged chlorine in the seawater was responsible for why seawater is such an effective method. The process works using something called a photocatalytic method, one of the first techniques to make H202 production a legitimate option, seeing as how other ways of making H202 requires a good deal of energy as well. This process takes a new photoelectrochemical cell developed to make H202 when the sun shines on the photocatalyst, which then takes in photons and begins certain chemical reactions, essentially creating H202. Though the researchers say they are currently planning to develop a way for low cost and large scale production of H202 of seawater, the process of creating energy still isn't quite as efficient as other methods of producing solar power. However, this is certainly another big step forward as the world moves away from fossil fuels and closer to greener energy sources.
Science
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ENERGY: The Fuel Cell Cars Are Here Now! -

GREAT SCOTT!!! SEE THE FUTURE:

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IF VIDEO DOES NOT PLAY, CLICK THIS LINK: >>> : toyota fuel cell.mp4

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ENERGY: Industry News Regarding Our Energy Technology

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ENERGY: Saving Billions of Dollars By Energy Time-Shifting With Our Technology

License Our Energy Technology And Accomplish These Savings...

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ENERGY: Fuel Cell Electric Power Solves Major Global Problems

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Fuel Cell Electric Power is the Next-stage Solution For The Modern World; and the world desperately needs it!

New York – – Survey’s reveal the height of consumer frustration caused by inadequate power of mobile devices. Nearly half of those surveyed (44%) admitted they run out of battery at least once a day and over 10% confessed to plugging in more than once a day. With smartphone and device usage on the rise, the survey showed that consumers are willing to pay more for devices that offered extended power.

The world has become an increasingly connected society according to another piece of research by Deloitte. 76% of adults now own a smartphone and it’s estimated that, collectively, consumers look at their smartphones 400 billion times a year, with 35% of smartphone users checking their phones within five minutes of waking. One in five of us carry some kind of charger around with us most of the time and more than 7% of us are plugging our phones in every few hours.

The Fuel Cell Electric technology from More Power (http://www.morepower.biz) is the #1 solution to this global problem!

With all signs pointing to increased smartphone and device usage, consumers are feeling the pain of limited battery power. When looking at the biggest annoyance of mobile devices, two fifths (39.2%) of consumers find battery life the most frustrating aspect of their smartphone. In fact it is one of top 10 frustrations of daily life, alongside cold calls and slow internet connections. Of the respondent’s findings, four times as many people said this was more frustrating than the second-place phone-related problem – lack of space (9.5%).

Battery life is now so important to consumers that over 10% of respondents confessed to borrowing a colleague or relative’s charger without asking, whilst another 13% have plugged into a train station or airport plug socket out of sheer desperation. This has led to 70% of respondents confirming they would be willing to pay for better battery life, with almost two fifths willing to stretch up to £20 extra.[1] However it’s clear there’s still a need to educate consumers on alternatives to battery power as almost 35% of respondents believe that adding a fuel cell to a mobile device would have no impact.

About a fifth didn’t think that any efforts were being made to improve battery life and a quarter thought they would be powered by movement.

Proven fuel cell electric technology solves the problem for this trillion dollar market opportunity. The technology is safe, clean, sustainable, efficient, supplied from within domestic borders, job-creating, additive to national security and can power devices for weeks.

Fuel cell electric technology for manufacturer’s devices is now a proven reality. A fuel cell has the potential to keep a smartphone powered for more than a week without plugging into the wall socket.

The survey, conducted by OnePoll polled 1000 consumers across the United Kingdom between the ages of 18 – 55+.

 
  • THE DAILY MAIL

 

Do YOU have 'low battery anxiety'? 90% of us panic about losing power on our phones

  • 32 per cent of us will 'drop everything' to head home and charge phones

  • 17 per cent of males missed match on a dating app because phone died

  • 60 per cent have blamed a dead phone for not speaking to a loved one

By Ellie Zolfagharifard For Dailymail.com

It's midday, and your phone's battery is dangerously close to the 20 per cent mark.

If you're like the majority of people, that red icon will leave you feeling panicked, annoyed and hunting for a spare charger.

LG has dubbed this condition 'Low Battery Anxiety' and says that nearly 9 out of 10 people suffer from the fear of losing power on their phone.

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The survey found 41 per cent of people fear missed calles the most when faced with a dead battery. And 17 per cent of males missed a match on a datting app because their phone died before they could swipe

LOW BATTERY ANXIETY: SYMPTOMS

- Asking a total stranger to charge their smartphone

- Arguing with a significant other or romantic interest because of unanswered calls or texts

- Ordering something at a bar or restaurant just to use their power outlet

- Secretly 'borrowing' someone else's charger

- Owning three or more smartphone charging cables

The company polled a random sample of more than 2,000 adult smartphone users in the US earlier this year.

When it comes to choosing between hitting the gym or charging their smartphone, it found one in three people are likely to skip the gym.

But millennials tend to have it worse – with 42 per cent likely to skip the gym when choosing between working out or charging their phone.

Smartphone users will even 'drop everything' (32 percent) and make a U-turn to head back home to charge their phone.

'Chances are Low Battery Anxiety is ruining relationships; a loved one you believed was 'ghosting' you could simply be exhibiting classic symptoms,' the company wrote in a statement.

SEE THIS REPORT ON HYDROGEN ENERGY >>:  Countering_the_anti-hydrogen_trolls_and_shills_1-21.pdf

Around 17 per cent of males missed a match on a dating app because their phone died, the survey found

When faced with only a few minutes of power, half of smartphone users will use the remaining time to text, while 35 per cent will use their last moments to make a phone call

 

The survey found 60 percent of people blamed a dead phone for not speaking to a family member, friend, co-worker or significant other if their battery was low.

And what's more, one in three people have gotten into an argument with a significant other or romantic interest as a result of unanswered calls or texts because their smartphone was dead.

The research also found 41 per cent of people fear missed calls the most when faced with a dead battery.

And 17 per cent of males missed a match on a dating app because their phone died before they could swipe.

When faced with only a few minutes of power, half of smartphone users will use the remaining time to text, while 35 per cent will use their last moments to make a phone call.

Around 46 per cent of people say they feel embarrassed to ask a total stranger to use their charger, but would anyway because the anxiety of a dead smartphone is too great.

More than 60 per cent of millennials will turn off their smartphone, and half will refrain from taking photos in hopes of prolonging their battery life.

If you do find that your phone is constantly flashing ‘battery low’, an Engineer has four simple tricks to extend its life.

'If you've ever traveled out of the country, you've probably had to turn every feature off your phone except for calling and texting,' Paul Shearing, a chemical engineer at the University College London told DailyMail.com

'Turning off the extra features ensures your battery will last longer, because there are a lot of hungry apps that are draining your battery without your realizing it.'

Shearing explained that a smartphone uses a lot of power just to keep apps up-to-date.

Turning off the 'background refresh' setting on these apps can save that power for keeping your phone alive, and the same goes for notifications.

Another trick to improving your battery life is to make sure your phone never gets too hot.

A smartphone is a mini-computer and has the same parts except for a cooling fan. When your phone is overheating the CPU chip is also operating full force, which uses a lot of your battery life.

Around 46 per cent of people say they feel embarrassed to ask a total stranger to use their charger, but would anyway because the anxiety of a dead smartphone is too great

The survey found 60 percent of people blamed a dead phone for not speaking to a family member, friend, co-worker or significant other if their battery was low

CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD THE REPORT

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