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The First “iPhone” and “SmartPhone”

First iPhone.png

Scott Douglas Redmond built, showed, marketed, filed multiple patents on and received multiple U.S. Federal patent issuances for the device now known as “The iPhone” and the “Smartphone” prior to Apple or Sony announcing or showing a Clie or iPhone device.

Scott was the first to demonstrate, for Apple, products that Apple later released as “The iPhone”, “Quicktime VR”, the use of an iPhone as a virtual reality display, position sensing device and camera-to-computer augmented reality and a shape-shifting mobile phone surface.

No known records have been provided by Apple, per questions from the news media, that show any proof, by Apple, of work on the product until years after Scott first invented and patented the product.

In this patent, one of several, notice the date, which was many years before Apple first gave order’s to it’s internal development team to begin design on their iPhone:

First iPhone.png

Previous patent filings, signed NDA’s, contracts, emails and industry records show even earlier invention proof dates.


Per Wikipedia:


iPhone (/ˈaɪfoʊn/ EYE-fohn) is a line of smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. They run Apple's iOS mobile operating system. The first generation iPhone was released on June 29, 2007, and there have been multiple new hardware iterations with new iOS releases since.

The user interface is built around the device's multi-touch screen, including a virtual keyboard. The iPhone has Wi-Fi and can connect to cellular networks. An iPhone can shoot video (though this was not a standard feature until the iPhone 3GS), take photos, play music, send and receive email, browse the web, send and receive text messages, follow GPS navigation, record notes, perform mathematical calculations, and receive visual voicemail. Other functionality, such as video games, reference works, and social networking, can be enabled by downloading mobile apps. As of January 2017, Apple's App Store contained more than 2.2 million applications available for the iPhone.

Apple has released eleven generations of iPhone models, each accompanied by one of the eleven major releases of the iOS operating system. The original 1st-generation iPhone was a GSM phone and established design precedents, such as a button placement that has persisted throughout all releases and a screen size maintained for the next four iterations. The iPhone 3G added 3G network support, and was followed by the 3GS with improved hardware, the 4 with a metal chassis, higher display resolution and front-facing camera, and the 4S with improved hardware and the voice assistant Siri. The iPhone 5 featured a taller, 4-inch display and Apple's newly introduced Lightning connector. In 2013, Apple released the 5S with improved hardware and a fingerprint reader, and the lower-cost 5C, a version of the 5 with colored plastic casings instead of metal. They were followed by the larger iPhone 6, with models featuring 4.7 and 5.5-inch displays. The iPhone 6S was introduced the following year, which featured hardware upgrades and support for pressure-sensitive touch inputs, as well as the SE—which featured hardware from the 6S but the smaller form factor of the 5S. In 2016, Apple unveiled the iPhone 7 and 7 Plus, which add water resistance, improved system and graphics performance, a new rear dual-camera setup on the Plus model, and new color options, while removing the 3.5 mm headphone jack found on previous models. The iPhone 8 and 8 Plus were released in 2017, adding a glass back and an improved screen and camera. The iPhone X was released alongside the 8 and 8 Plus, with its highlights being a near bezel-less design, an improved camera and a new facial recognition system, named Face ID, but having no home button, and therefore, no Touch ID.

The original iPhone was described as "revolutionary" and a "game-changer" for the mobile phone industry. Newer iterations have also garnered praise, and the iPhone's success has been credited with helping to make Apple one of the world's most valuable publicly traded companies.

Apple has filed more than 200 patent applications related to the technology behind the iPhone.[265][266]

LG Electronics claimed the design of the iPhone was copied from the LG Prada. Woo-Young Kwak, head of LG Mobile Handset R&D Center, said at a press conference: "we consider that Apple copied Prada phone after the design was unveiled when it was presented in the iF Design Award and won the prize in September 2006."[267]

On September 3, 1993, Infogear filed for the US trademark "I PHONE"[268] and on March 20, 1996, applied for the trademark "IPhone".[269] "I Phone" was registered in March 1998,[268] and "IPhone" was registered in 1999.[269] Since then, the I PHONE mark had been abandoned.[268] Infogear trademarks cover "communications terminals comprising computer hardware and software providing integrated telephone, data communications and personal computer functions" (1993 filing),[268] and "computer hardware and software for providing integrated telephone communication with computerized global information networks" (1996 filing).[270]

Infogear released a telephone with an integrated web browser under the name iPhone in 1998.[271] In 2000, Infogear won an infringement claim against the owners of the domain name.[272] In June 2000, Cisco Systems acquired Infogear, including the iPhone trademark.[273] On December 18, 2006, they released a range of re-branded Voice over IP (VoIP) sets under the name iPhone.[274]

In October 2002, Apple applied for the "iPhone" trademark in the United Kingdom, Australia, Singapore, and the European Union. A Canadian application followed in October 2004, and a New Zealand application in September 2006. As of October 2006, only the Singapore and Australian applications had been granted.

In September 2006, a company called Ocean Telecom Services applied for an "iPhone" trademark in the United States, United Kingdom and Hong Kong, following a filing in Trinidad and Tobago.[275] As the Ocean Telecom trademark applications use exactly the same wording as the New Zealand application of Apple, it is assumed that Ocean Telecom is applying on behalf of Apple.[276] The Canadian application was opposed in August 2005, by a Canadian company called Comwave who themselves applied for the trademark three months later. Comwave has been selling VoIP devices called iPhone since 2004.[273]

Shortly after Steve Jobs' January 9, 2007 announcement that Apple would be selling a product called iPhone in June 2007, Cisco issued a statement that it had been negotiating trademark licensing with Apple and expected Apple to agree to the final documents that had been submitted the night before.[277] On January 10, 2007, Cisco announced it had filed a lawsuit against Apple over the infringement of the trademark iPhone, seeking an injunction in federal court to prohibit Apple from using the name.[278] In February 2007, Cisco claimed that the trademark lawsuit was a "minor skirmish" that was not about money, but about interoperability.[279]

On February 2, 2007, Apple and Cisco announced that they had agreed to temporarily suspend litigation while they held settlement talks,[280] and subsequently announced on February 20, 2007, that they had reached an agreement. Both companies will be allowed to use the "iPhone" name[281] in exchange for "exploring interoperability" between their security, consumer, and business communications products.[282]

The iPhone has also inspired several leading high-tech clones,[283] driving both the popularity of Apple and consumer willingness to upgrade iPhones quickly.[284]

On October 22, 2009, Nokia filed a lawsuit against Apple for infringement of its GSM, UMTS and WLAN patents. Nokia alleges that Apple has been violating ten Nokia patents since the iPhone initial release.[285]

In December 2010, Reuters reported that some iPhone and iPad users were suing Apple Inc. because some applications were passing user information to third-party advertisers without permission. Some makers of the applications such as Textplus4, Paper Toss, The Weather Channel,, Talking Tom Cat and Pumpkin Maker have also been named as co-defendants in the lawsuit.[286]

In August 2012, Apple won a smartphone patent lawsuit in the U.S. against Samsung, the world's largest maker of smartphones;[287] however, on December 6, 2016, SCOTUS reversed the decision that awarded nearly $400 million to Apple and returned the case to Federal Circuit court to define the appropriate legal standard to define "article of manufacture" because it is not the smartphone itself but could be just the case and screen to which the design patents relate.[288]

Development of what was to become the iPhone began in 2004, when Apple started to gather a team of 1,000 employees to work on the highly confidential "Project Purple",[15] including Jonathan Ive, the designer behind the iMac and iPod.[16] Apple CEO Steve Jobs steered the original focus away from a tablet (which Apple eventually revisited in the form of the iPad) and towards a phone.[17] Apple created the device during a secretive collaboration with Cingular Wireless (now AT&T Mobility) at the time—at an estimated development cost of US$150 million over thirty months.[18]

Apple rejected the "design by committee" approach that had yielded the Motorola ROKR E1, a largely unsuccessful collaboration with Motorola. Among other deficiencies, the ROKR E1's firmware limited storage to only 100 iTunes songs to avoid competing with Apple's iPod nano.[19][20]

Cingular gave Apple the liberty to develop the iPhone's hardware and software in-house[21][22] and even paid Apple a fraction of its monthly service revenue (until the iPhone 3G),[23] in exchange for four years of exclusive US sales, until 2011.[24]

Jobs unveiled the iPhone to the public on January 9, 2007, at the Macworld 2007 convention at the Moscone Center in San Francisco.[25] The two initial models, a 4 GB model priced at US$499 and an 8 GB model at US$599 (both requiring a 2-year contract), went on sale in the United States on June 29, 2007, at 6:00 pm local time, while hundreds of customers lined up outside the stores nationwide.[26] The passionate reaction to the launch of the iPhone resulted in sections of the media dubbing it the 'Jesus phone'.[27][28] Following this successful release in the US, the first generation iPhone was made available in the UK, France, and Germany in November 2007, and Ireland and Austria in the spring of 2008.


On July 11, 2008, Apple released the iPhone 3G in twenty-two countries, including the original six.[29] Apple released the iPhone 3G in upwards of eighty countries and territories.[30] Apple announced the iPhone 3GS on June 8, 2009, along with plans to release it later in June, July, and August, starting with the US, Canada and major European countries on June 19. Many would-be users objected to the iPhone's cost,[31] and 40% of users had household incomes over US$100,000.[32]

The back of the original first generation iPhone was made of aluminum with a black plastic accent. The iPhone 3G and 3GS feature a full plastic back to increase the strength of the GSM signal.[33] The iPhone 3G was available in an 8 GB black model, or a black or white option for the 16 GB model. The iPhone 3GS was available in both colors, regardless of storage capacity.

The iPhone 4 has an aluminosilicate glass front and back with a stainless steel edge that serves as the antennas. It was at first available in black; the white version was announced, but not released until April 2011, 10 months later.

Users of the iPhone 4 reported dropped/disconnected telephone calls when holding their phones in a certain way. This became known as antennagate.[34]

On January 11, 2011, Verizon announced during a media event that it had reached an agreement with Apple and would begin selling a CDMA iPhone 4. Verizon said it would be available for pre-order on February 3, with a release set for February 10.[35][36] In February 2011, the Verizon iPhone accounted for 4.5% of all iPhone ad impressions in the US on Millennial Media's mobile ad network.[37]

From 2007 to 2011, Apple spent $647 million on advertising for the iPhone in the US.[15]

On Tuesday, September 27, Apple sent invitations for a press event to be held October 4, 2011, at 10:00 am at the Cupertino Headquarters to announce details of the next generation iPhone, which turned out to be iPhone 4S. Over 1 million 4S models were sold in the first 24 hours after its release in October 2011.[38] Due to large volumes of the iPhone being manufactured and its high selling price, Apple became the largest mobile handset vendor in the world by revenue, in 2011, surpassing long-time leader Nokia.[39] American carrier C Spire Wireless announced that it would be carrying the iPhone 4S on October 19, 2011.[40]

In January 2012, Apple reported its best quarterly earnings ever, with 53% of its revenue coming from the sale of 37 million iPhones, at an average selling price of nearly $660. The average selling price has remained fairly constant for most of the phone's lifespan, hovering between $622 and $660.[41] The production price of the iPhone 4S was estimated by IHS iSuppli, in October 2011, to be $188, $207 and $245, for the 16 GB, 32 GB and 64 GB models, respectively.[42] Labor costs are estimated at between $12.50 and $30 per unit, with workers on the iPhone assembly line making $1.78 an hour.[43]

In February 2012, ComScore reported that 12.4% of US mobile subscribers used an iPhone.[44] Approximately 6.4 million iPhones are active in the US alone.[32]

On September 12, 2012, Apple announced the iPhone 5. It has a 4-inch display, up from its predecessors' 3.5-inch screen. The device comes with the same 326 pixels per inch found in the iPhone 4 and 4S. The iPhone 5 has the SoC A6 processor, the chip is 22% smaller than the iPhone 4S' A5 and is twice as fast, doubling the graphics performance of its predecessor. The device is 18% thinner than the iPhone 4S, measuring 7.6 millimetres (0.3 in), and is 20% lighter at 112 grams (4 oz).

On July 6, 2013, it was reported that Apple was in talks with Korean mobile carrier SK Telecom to release the next generation iPhone with LTE Advanced technology.[45]

On July 22, 2013, the company's suppliers said that Apple is testing out larger screens for the iPhone and iPad. "Apple has asked for prototype smartphone screens larger than 4 inches and has also asked for screen designs for a new tablet device measuring slightly less than 13 inches diagonally, they said."[46]

On September 10, 2013, Apple unveiled two new iPhone models during a highly anticipated press event in Cupertino. The iPhone 5C, a mid-range-priced version of the handset that is designed to increase accessibility due to its price is available in five colors (green, blue, yellow, pink, and white) and is made of plastic. The iPhone 5S comes in three colors (black, white, and gold) and the home button is replaced with a fingerprint scanner (Touch ID). Both phones shipped on September 20, 2013.[47]

On September 9, 2014, Apple revealed the iPhone 6 and the iPhone 6 Plus at an event in Cupertino. Both devices had a larger screen than their predecessor, at 4.7 and 5.5 inches respectively.[48]

In 2016, Apple unveiled the iPhone 7 and 7 Plus, which add water and dust resistance, improved system and graphics performance, a new dual-camera setup on the Plus model, new color options, and remove the 3.5 mm headphone jack.[49]

On September 12, 2017, Apple officially unveiled the iPhone 8 and 8 Plus, which features a new glass design, camera improvements, a True Tone display, wireless charging and improved system performance. It also unveiled the iPhone X, which features a near-bezelless design, face recognition dubbed "Face ID" with facial tracking used for Animojis, an OLED screen with the highest pixel density on an iPhone, a new telephoto lens which works better in low light conditions, and improved cameras for AR.[50]

Sales and profits

Apple sold 6.1 million first generation iPhone units over five quarters.[51] Sales in the fourth quarter of 2008, temporarily surpassed those of Research In Motion's (RIM) BlackBerry sales of 5.2 million units, which briefly made Apple the third largest mobile phone manufacturer by revenue, after Nokia and Samsung[52] (However, some of this income is deferred[53]). Recorded sales grew steadily thereafter, and by the end of fiscal year 2010, a total of 73.5 million iPhones were sold.[54]

By 2010, the iPhone had a market share of barely 4% of all cellphones; however, Apple pulled in more than 50% of the total profit that global cellphone sales generate.[55] Apple sold 14.1 million iPhones in the third quarter of 2010, representing a 91% unit growth over the year-ago quarter, which was well ahead of IDC's latest published estimate of 64% growth for the global smartphone market in the September quarter. Apple's sales surpassed that of Research in Motion's 12.1 million BlackBerry units sold in their most recent quarter ended August 2010.[56] In the United States market alone for the third quarter of 2010, while there were 9.1 million Android-powered smartphones shipped for 43.6% of the market, Apple iOS was the number two phone operating system with 26.2% but the 5.5 million iPhones sold made it the most popular single device.[57]

On March 2, 2011, at the iPad 2 launch event, Apple announced that they had sold 100 million iPhones worldwide.[58] As a result of the success of the iPhone sales volume and high selling price, headlined by the iPhone 4S, Apple became the largest mobile handset vendor in the world by revenue in 2011, surpassing long-time leader Nokia.[39] While the Samsung Galaxy S II proved more popular than the iPhone 4S in parts of Europe, the iPhone 4S was dominant in the United States.[59]

In January 2012, Apple reported its best quarterly earnings ever, with 53% of its revenue coming from the sale of 37 million iPhones, at an average selling price of nearly $660. The average selling price has remained fairly constant for most of the phone's lifespan, hovering between $622 and $660.[41]

For the eight largest phone manufacturers in Q1 2012, according to Horace Dediu at Asymco, Apple and Samsung combined to take 99% of industry profits (HTC took the remaining 1%, while RIM, LG, Sony Ericsson, Motorola, and Nokia all suffered losses), with Apple earning 73 cents out of every dollar earned by the phone makers. As the industry profits grew from $5.3 billion in the first quarter of 2010 to $14.4 billion in the first quarter of 2012 (quadruple the profits in 2007),[60][61] Apple had managed to increase its share of these profits. This is due to increasing carrier subsidies and the high selling prices of the iPhone, which had a negative effect on the wireless carriers (AT&T Mobility, Verizon, and Sprint) who have seen their EBITDA service margins drop as they sold an increasing number of iPhones.[62][63][64] By the quarter ended March 31, 2012, Apple's sales from the iPhone alone (at $22.7 billion) exceeded the total of Microsoft from all of its businesses ($17.4 billion).[65]

In the fourth quarter of 2012, the iPhone 5 and iPhone 4S were the best-selling handsets with sales of 27.4 million (13% of smartphones worldwide) and 17.4 million units, respectively, with the Samsung Galaxy S III in third with 15.4 million. According to Strategy Analytics' data, this was "an impressive performance, given the iPhone portfolio’s premium pricing," adding that the Galaxy S III’s global popularity "appears to have peaked" (the Galaxy S III was touted as an iPhone-killer by some in the press when it was released[66][67]). While Samsung has led in worldwide sales of smartphones, Apple's iPhone line has still managed to top Samsung's smartphone offerings in the United States,[68] with 21.4% share and 37.8% in that market, respectively. iOS grew 3.5% to a 37.8%, while Android slid 1.3% to fall to a 52.3% share.[69]

The continued top popularity of the iPhone despite growing Android competition was also attributed to Apple being able to deliver iOS updates over the air, while Android updates are frequently impeded by carrier testing requirements and hardware tailoring, forcing consumers to purchase a new Android smartphone to get the latest version of that OS.[70] However, by 2013, Apple's market share had fallen to 13.1%, due to the surging popularity of the Android offerings.[71]

Apple announced on September 1, 2013, that its iPhone trade-in program would be implemented at all of its 250 specialty stores in the US. For the program to become available, customers must have a valid contract and must purchase a new phone, rather than simply receive credit to be used at a later date. A significant part of the program's goal is to increase the number of customers who purchase iPhones at Apple stores rather than carrier stores.[72]

On September 20, 2013, the sales date of the iPhone 5S and 5C models, the longest ever queue was observed at the New York City flagship Apple store, in addition to prominent queues in San Francisco, US and Canada; however, locations throughout the world were identified for the anticipation of corresponding consumers.[73] Apple also increased production of the gold-colored iPhone 5S by an additional one-third due to the particularly strong demand that emerged.[74] Apple had decided to introduce a gold model after finding that gold was seen as a popular sign of a luxury product among Chinese customers.[75]

Apple released its opening weekend sales results for the 5C and 5S models, showing an all-time high for the product's sales figures, with 9 million handsets sold—the previous record was set in 2012, when 5 million handsets were sold during the opening weekend of the 5 model. This was the first time that Apple has simultaneously launched two models and the inclusion of China in the list of markets contributed to the record sales result.[76] Apple also announced that, as of September 23, 2013, 200 million devices were running the iOS 7 update, making it the "fastest software upgrade in history."[77]

An Apple Store located at the Christiana Mall in Newark, Delaware, US claimed the highest iPhones sales figures in November 2013. The store's high sales results are due to the absence of a sales tax in the state of Delaware.[78]

The finalization of a deal between Apple and China Mobile, the world's largest mobile network, was announced in late December 2013. The multi-year agreement provides iPhone access to over 760 million China Mobile subscribers.[79]

In the first quarter of 2014, Apple reported that it had sold 51 million iPhones, an all-time quarterly record, compared to 47.8 million in the year-ago quarter.[80][81]

The Sony CLIÉ is a series of personal digital assistants running the Palm Operating System developed and marketed by Sony from 2000 to 2005. The devices introduced many new features to the PDA market, such as a jog-wheel interface, high-resolution displays, and Sony technologies like Memory Stick slots and ATRAC3 audio playback. Most models were designed and manufactured in Japan. The name is an acronym for creativity, lifestyle, innovation, emotion though formerly communication, link, information and entertainment. It was initially an attempt at a new coinage term, though it means "tool" in the Jèrriais language.

The CLIÉ handhelds were distinguished from other Palm OS models by their emphasis on multimedia capabilities, including photo, video, and audio playback, long before any other Palm OS PDAs had such capabilities. Later models have been credited with spurring competition in the previously stagnant Palm market, closing many of the gaps that existed between Palm OS PDAs and those powered by Microsoft's Windows Mobile operating system, particularly on the multimedia front, but also with Sony's proprietary application launcher interface.

Email to Scott from Sony’s head of mobile devices after Sony consulted with Scott. In this email the Sony boss says that Sony is not going to make a Clie...then they do make it:


Scott’s team is the only non-Sony party mentioned (...and mention over-and-over) in Sony’s federal patent filings as the source of Sony’s technology:


During the heyday of the iPhones, total profits for Apple for the iPhone are said, by Forbes, to be in the many billions of dollars.




How My Science Teams Can See Everything: The Laser Raman Spectroscopic Study Device

Seeing The Invisible...


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How My Science Teams Can See Everything: The Laser Raman Spectroscopic Study Device

Want to know about every toxin in your home, food or air? Want to see what is in that beverage you are about to drink? You can look at any object and know what it is and what it is made of with our E-Glasses interface. You can tune your life like you tune your music. You can dial-out certain substances and dial-in others. Our trade secret and patent-pending protected technology is the i-Pod of personal science. While large systems in this field exist, there is nothing out there for "regular folks". As they say: "If you can't buy it at Walgreens or Rite Aid, who cares?..." The technology is 100% functional right now. Factory DFM and volume price-point reduction is the final challenge.

A new gadget we are working on will let you put a device in your pocket that can tell you about every substance you put inside your body. It uses solid state lasers and other interesting things. What is the science behind part of it? Let’s take a look:

Micro-Laser Raman Spectroscopy is a spectroscopic analysis technique used to observe vibrational, rotational, and other low-frequency modes in a system.[1] Raman spectroscopy is commonly used in chemistry to provide a visual structure fingerprint by which molecules, and that which they make up, can be identified. It can see the particles that make up that which is around you by identifying their molucular components.

It relies on inelastic scattering, or Raman scattering, of monochromatic light, usually from a laser in the visible, near infrared, or near ultraviolet range. The laser light interacts with molecular vibrations, phonons, or other excitations in the system, resulting in the energy of the laser photons being shifted up or down. The shift in energy gives information about the vibrational modes in the system. Infrared spectroscopy yields similar, but complementary, information.

Typically, a sample is illuminated with a laser beam. Electromagnetic radiation from the illuminated spot is collected with a lens and sent through a monochromator. Elastic scattered radiation at the wavelength corresponding to the laser line (Rayleigh scattering) is filtered out by either a notch filter, edge pass filter, or a band pass filter, while the rest of the collected light is dispersed onto a detector.

Spontaneous Raman scattering is typically very weak, and as a result the main difficulty of Raman spectroscopy is separating the weak inelastically scattered light from the intense Rayleigh scattered laser light. Historically, Raman spectrometers used holographic gratings and multiple dispersion stages to achieve a high degree of laser rejection. In the past, photomultipliers were the detectors of choice for dispersive Raman setups, which resulted in long acquisition times. However, modern instrumentation almost universally employs notch or edge filters for laser rejection and spectrographs either axial transmissive (AT), Czerny–Turner (CT) monochromator, or FT (Fourier transform spectroscopy based), and CCD detectors.

The advanced types of Raman spectroscopy include surface-enhanced Raman, resonance Raman, tip-enhanced Raman, polarized Raman, stimulated Raman (analogous to stimulated emission), transmission Raman, spatially offset Raman, and hyper Raman.

The Raman effect occurs when electromagnetic radiation interacts with a solid, liquid, or gaseous molecule’s polarizable electron density and bonds. The spontaneous effect is a form of inelastic light scattering, where a photon excites the molecule in either the ground (lowest energy) or excited rovibronic state (a rotational and vibrational energy level within an electronic state). This excitation puts the molecule into a virtual energy state for a short time before the photon scatters inelastically. Inelastic scattering means that the scattered photon can be of either lower or higher energy than the incoming photon, compared to elastic, or Rayleigh, scattering where the scattered photon has the same energy as the incoming photon. After interacting with the photon, the molecule is in a different rotational or vibrational state. This change in energy between the initial and final rovibronic states causes the scattered photon's frequency to shift away from the excitation wavelength (that of the incoming photon), called the Rayleigh line.

For the total energy of the system to remain constant after the molecule moves to a new rovibronic state, the scattered photon shifts to a different energy, and therefore a different frequency. This energy difference is equal to that between the initial and final rovibronic states of the molecule. If the final state is higher in energy than the initial state, the scattered photon will be shifted to a lower frequency (lower energy) so that the total energy remains the same. This shift in frequency is called a Stokes shift, or downshift. If the final state is lower in energy, the scattered photon will be shifted to a higher frequency, which is called an anti-Stokes shift, or upshift.

For a molecule to exhibit a Raman effect, there must be a change in its electric dipole-electric dipole polarizability with respect to the vibrational coordinate corresponding to the rovibronic state. The intensity of the Raman scattering is proportional to this polarizability change. Therefore, the Raman spectrum, scattering intensity as a function of the frequency shifts, depends on the rovibronic states of the molecule.

The Raman effect is based on the interaction between the electron cloud of a sample and the external electrical field of the monochromatic light, which can create an induced dipole moment within the molecule based on its polarizability. Because the laser light does not excite the molecule there can be no real transition between energy levels.[2] The Raman effect should not be confused with emission (fluorescence or phosphorescence), where a molecule in an excited electronic state emits a photon and returns to the ground electronic state, in many cases to a vibrationally excited state on the ground electronic state potential energy surface. Raman scattering also contrasts with infrared (IR) absorption, where the energy of the absorbed photon matches the difference in energy between the initial and final rovibronic states. The dependence of Raman on the electric dipole-electric dipole polarizability derivative also differs from IR spectroscopy, which depends on the electric dipole moment derivative, the atomic polar tensor (APT). This contrasting feature allows rovibronic transitions that might not be active in IR to be analyzed using Raman spectroscopy, as exemplified by the rule of mutual exclusion in centrosymmetric molecules. Transitions which have large Raman intensities often have weak IR intensities and vice versa. A third vibrational spectroscopy technique, inelastic incoherent neutron scattering (IINS), can be used to determine the frequencies of vibrations in highly symmetric molecules that may be both IR and Raman inactive. The IINS selection rules, or allowed transitions, differ from those of IR and Raman, so the three techniques are complementary. They all give the same frequency for a given vibrational transition, but the relative intensities provide different information due to the different types of interaction between the molecule and the incoming particles, photons for IR and Raman, and neutrons for IINS.

Although the inelastic scattering of light was predicted by Adolf Smekal in 1923,[3] it was not observed in practice until 1928. The Raman effect was named after one of its discoverers, the Indian scientist Sir C. V. Raman, who observed the effect by means of sunlight (1928, together with K. S. Krishnan and independently by Grigory Landsberg and Leonid Mandelstam).[1] Raman won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1930 for this discovery accomplished using sunlight, a narrow-band photographic filter to create monochromatic light, and a "crossed filter" to block this monochromatic light. He found that a small amount of light had changed frequency and passed through the "crossed" filter.

Systematic pioneering theory of the Raman effect was developed by Czechoslovak physicist George Placzek between 1930 and 1934.[4] The mercury arc became the principal light source, first with photographic detection and then with spectrophotometric detection.

In the years following its discovery, Raman spectroscopy was used to provide the first catalog of molecular vibrational frequencies. Originally, heroic measures were required to obtain Raman spectra due to the low sensitivity of the technique. Typically, the sample was held in a long tube and illuminated along its length with a beam of filtered monochromatic light generated by a gas discharge lamp. The photons that were scattered by the sample were collected through an optical flat at the end of the tube. To maximize the sensitivity, the sample was highly concentrated (1 M or more) and relatively large volumes (5 mL or more) were used. Consequently, the use of Raman spectroscopy dwindled when commercial IR spectrophotometers became available in the 1940s. However, the advent of the laser in the 1960s resulted in simplified Raman spectroscopy instruments and also boosted the sensitivity of the technique. This has revived the use of Raman spectroscopy as a common analytical technique.

Raman shifts are typically reported in wavenumbers, which have units of inverse length, as this value is directly related to energy. In order to convert between spectral wavelength and wavenumbers of shift in the Raman spectrum.

Raman spectroscopy is used in chemistry to identify molecules and study chemical bonding. Because vibrational frequencies are specific to a molecule’s chemical bonds and symmetry (the fingerprint region of organic molecules is in the wavenumber range 500–1500 cm−1,[5] Raman provides a fingerprint to identify molecules. For instance, Raman and IR spectra were used to determine the vibrational frequencies of SiO, Si2O2, and Si3O3 on the basis of normal coordinate analyses.[6] Raman is also used to study the addition of a substrate to an enzyme.

In solid-state physics, Raman spectroscopy is used to characterize materials, measure temperature, and find the crystallographic orientation of a sample. As with single molecules, a solid material can be identified by characteristic phonon modes. Information on the population of a phonon mode is given by the ratio of the Stokes and anti-Stokes intensity of the spontaneous Raman signal. Raman spectroscopy can also be used to observe other low frequency excitations of a solid, such as plasmons, magnons, and superconducting gap excitations. Distributed temperature sensing (DTS) uses the Raman-shifted backscatter from laser pulses to determine the temperature along optical fibers. The orientation of an anisotropic crystal can be found from the polarization of Raman-scattered light with respect to the crystal and the polarization of the laser light, if the crystal structure’s point group is known.

In nanotechnology, a Raman microscope can be used to analyze nanowires to better understand their structures, and the radial breathing mode of carbon nanotubes is commonly used to evaluate their diameter.

Raman active fibers, such as aramid and carbon, have vibrational modes that show a shift in Raman frequency with applied stress. Polypropylene fibers exhibit similar shifts.

In solid state chemistry and the bio-pharmaceutical industry, Raman spectroscopy can be used to not only identify active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), but to identify their polymorphic forms, if more than one exist. For example, the drug Cayston (aztreonam), marketed by Gilead Sciences for cystic fibrosis,[7] can be identified and characterized by IR and Raman spectroscopy. Using the correct polymorphic form in bio-pharmaceutical formulations is critical, since different forms have different physical properties, like solubility and melting point.

Raman spectroscopy has a wide variety of applications in biology and medicine. It has helped confirm the existence of low-frequency phonons[8] in proteins and DNA,[9][10][11][12] promoting studies of low-frequency collective motion in proteins and DNA and their biological functions.[13][14] Raman reporter molecules with olefin or alkyne moieties are being developed for tissue imaging with SERS-labeled antibodies.[15] Raman spectroscopy has also been used as a noninvasive technique for real-time, in situ biochemical characterization of wounds. Multivariate analysis of Raman spectra has enabled development of a quantitative measure for wound healing progress.[16] Spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS), which is less sensitive to surface layers than conventional Raman, can be used to discover counterfeit drugs without opening their packaging, and to non-invasively study biological tissue.[17] A huge reason why Raman spectroscopy is so useful in biological applications is because its results often do not face interference from water molecules, due to the fact that they have permanent dipole moments, and as a result, the Raman scattering cannot be picked up on. This is a large advantage, specifically in biological applications.[18] Raman spectroscopy also has a wide usage for studying biominerals.[19] Lastly, Raman gas analyzers have many practical applications, including real-time monitoring of anesthetic and respiratory gas mixtures during surgery.

Raman spectroscopy is an efficient and non-destructive way to investigate works of art.[20] Identifying individual pigments in paintings and their degradation products provides insight into the working method of the artist. It also gives information about the original state of the painting in cases where the pigments degraded with age.[21] In addition to paintings, Raman spectroscopy can be used to investigate the chemical composition of historical documents (such as the Book of Kells), which can provide insight about the social and economic conditions when they were created.[22] It also offers a noninvasive way to determine the best method of preservation or conservation of such materials.

Raman spectroscopy has been used in several research projects as a means to detect explosives from a safe distance using laser beams.[23][24][25] Airports and transit areas in NY City and Paris now use laser explosive detection.

Raman Spectroscopy is being further developed so it could be used in the clinical setting. Raman4Clinic is a European organization that is working on incorporating Raman Spectroscopy techniques in the medical field. They are currently working on different projects, one of them being monitoring cancer using bodily fluids such as urine and blood samples which are easily accessible. This technique would be less stressful on the patients than constantly having to take biopsies which are not always risk free.[26]

Handheld spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) has just been developed for a novel application to food security, in this case counterfeiting/food fraud. The first time such a handheld device has been used in a food or beverage product, it was able to detect multiple chemical markers of counterfeit alcohol in extremely low concentrations. This included six denaturants and four additives commonly used by counterfeiters worldwide. This was achievable directly through the bottle without any contact with the sample and through multiple colours of commercial bottles of a variety of spirit drinks.[27]



Comparison of topographical (AFM, top) and Raman images of GaSe. Scale bar is 5 μm.[28]

Raman spectroscopy offers several advantages for microscopic analysis. Since it is a scattering technique, specimens do not need to be fixed or sectioned. Raman spectra can be collected from a very small volume (< 1 µm in diameter); these spectra allow the identification of species present in that volume. Water does not generally interfere with Raman spectral analysis. Thus, Raman spectroscopy is suitable for the microscopic examination of minerals, materials such as polymers and ceramics, cells, proteins and forensic trace evidence. A Raman microscope begins with a standard optical microscope, and adds an excitation laser, a monochromator, and a sensitive detector (such as a charge-coupled device (CCD), or photomultiplier tube (PMT)). FT-Raman has also been used with microscopes. Ultraviolet microscopes and UV enhanced optics must be used when a UV laser source is used for Raman microspectroscopy.

In direct imaging, the whole field of view is examined for scattering over a small range of wavenumbers (Raman shifts). For instance, a wavenumber characteristic for cholesterol could be used to record the distribution of cholesterol within a cell culture.

The other approach is hyperspectral imaging or chemical imaging, in which thousands of Raman spectra are acquired from all over the field of view. The data can then be used to generate images showing the location and amount of different components. Taking the cell culture example, a hyperspectral image could show the distribution of cholesterol, as well as proteins, nucleic acids, and fatty acids. Sophisticated signal- and image-processing techniques can be used to ignore the presence of water, culture media, buffers, and other interference.

Raman microscopy, and in particular confocal microscopy, has very high spatial resolution. For example, the lateral and depth resolutions were 250 nm and 1.7 µm, respectively, using a confocal Raman microspectrometer with the 632.8 nm line from a helium–neon laser with a pinhole of 100 µm diameter. Since the objective lenses of microscopes focus the laser beam to several micrometres in diameter, the resulting photon flux is much higher than achieved in conventional Raman setups. This has the added benefit of enhanced fluorescence quenching. However, the high photon flux can also cause sample degradation, and for this reason some setups require a thermally conducting substrate (which acts as a heat sink) in order to mitigate this process. Another approach called global Raman imaging[29] uses complete monochromatic images instead of reconstruction of images from acquired spectra. This technique is being used for the characterization of large scale devices, mapping of different compounds and dynamics study. It has already been use for the characterization of graphene layers,[30] J-aggregated dyes inside carbon nanotubes[31] and multiple other 2D materials such as MoS2 and WSe2. Since the excitation beam is dispersed over the whole field of view, those measurements can be done without damaging the sample.

By using Raman microspectroscopy, in vivo time- and space-resolved Raman spectra of microscopic regions of samples can be measured. As a result, the fluorescence of water, media, and buffers can be removed. Consequently, in vivo time- and space-resolved Raman spectroscopy is suitable to examine proteins, cells and organs.

Raman microscopy for biological and medical specimens generally uses near-infrared (NIR) lasers (785 nm diodes and 1064 nm Nd:YAG are especially common). The use of these lower energy wavelengths reduces the risk of damaging the specimen. However, the intensity of NIR Raman is low (owing to the ω4 dependence of Raman scattering intensity), and most detectors require very long collection times. Recently advances were made which had no destructive effect on mitochondria in the observation of changes in cytochrome c structure that occur in the process of electron transport and ATP synthesis.[32]

Sensitive detectors have become available, making the technique better suited to general use. Raman microscopy of inorganic specimens, such as rocks and ceramics and polymers, can use a broader range of excitation wavelengths.[33]

The polarization of the Raman scattered light also contains useful information. This property can be measured using (plane) polarized laser excitation and a polarization analyzer. Spectra acquired with the analyzer set at both perpendicular and parallel to the excitation plane can be used to calculate the depolarization ratio. Study of the technique is useful in teaching the connections between group theory, symmetry, Raman activity, and peaks in the corresponding Raman spectra.[34] Polarized light only gives access to some of the Raman active modes. By rotating the polarization you can gain access to the other modes. Each mode is separated according to its symmetry.[35]

The spectral information arising from this analysis gives insight into molecular orientation and vibrational symmetry. In essence, it allows the user to obtain valuable information relating to the molecular shape, for example in synthetic chemistry or polymorph analysis. It is often used to understand macromolecular orientation in crystal lattices, liquid crystals or polymer samples.[36]

It is convenient in polarised Raman spectroscopy to describe the propagation and polarisation directions using Porto's notation,[37] described by and named after Brazilian physicist Sergio Pereira da Silva Porto.


Several variations of Raman spectroscopy have been developed. The usual purpose is to enhance the sensitivity (e.g., surface-enhanced Raman), to improve the spatial resolution (Raman microscopy), or to acquire very specific information (resonance Raman).

  • Spontaneous Raman spectroscopy – Term used to describe Raman spectroscopy without enhancement of sensitivity.

  • Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) – Normally done in a silver or gold colloid or a substrate containing silver or gold. Surface plasmons of silver and gold are excited by the laser, resulting in an increase in the electric fields surrounding the metal. Given that Raman intensities are proportional to the electric field, there is large increase in the measured signal (by up to 1011). This effect was originally observed by Martin Fleischmann but the prevailing explanation was proposed by Van Duyne in 1977.[38] A comprehensive theory of the effect was given by Lombardi and Birke.[39]

  • Resonance Raman spectroscopy – The excitation wavelength is matched to an electronic transition of the molecule or crystal, so that vibrational modes associated with the excited electronic state are greatly enhanced. This is useful for studying large molecules such as polypeptides, which might show hundreds of bands in "conventional" Raman spectra. It is also useful for associating normal modes with their observed frequency shifts.[40]

  • Surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERRS) – A combination of SERS and resonance Raman spectroscopy that uses proximity to a surface to increase Raman intensity, and excitation wavelength matched to the maximum absorbance of the molecule being analysed.

  • Angle-resolved Raman spectroscopy – Not only are standard Raman results recorded but also the angle with respect to the incident laser. If the orientation of the sample is known then detailed information about the phonon dispersion relation can also be gleaned from a single test.[41]

  • Hyper Raman – A non-linear effect in which the vibrational modes interact with the second harmonic of the excitation beam. This requires very high power, but allows the observation of vibrational modes that are normally "silent". It frequently relies on SERS-type enhancement to boost the sensitivity.[42]

  • Optical tweezers Raman spectroscopy (OTRS) – Used to study individual particles, and even biochemical processes in single cells trapped by optical tweezers.

  • Stimulated Raman spectroscopy (SRS) – A pump-probe technique, where a spatially coincident, two color pulse (with polarization either parallel or perpendicular) transfers the population from ground to a rovibrationally excited state. If the difference in energy corresponds to an allowed Raman transition, scattered light will correspond to loss or gain in the pump beam.

  • Spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) – The Raman scattering beneath an obscuring surface is retrieved from a scaled subtraction of two spectra taken at two spatially offset points

  • Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) – Two laser beams are used to generate a coherent anti-Stokes frequency beam, which can be enhanced by resonance.

  • Raman optical activity (ROA) – Measures vibrational optical activity by means of a small difference in the intensity of Raman scattering from chiral molecules in right- and left-circularly polarized incident light or, equivalently, a small circularly polarized component in the scattered light.[43]

  • Transmission Raman – Allows probing of a significant bulk of a turbid material, such as powders, capsules, living tissue, etc. It was largely ignored following investigations in the late 1960s (Schrader and Bergmann, 1967)[44] but was rediscovered in 2006 as a means of rapid assay of pharmaceutical dosage forms.[45] There are medical diagnostic applications particularly in the detection of cancer.[25][46][47]

  • Inverse Raman spectroscopy.

  • Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) – Uses a metallic (usually silver-/gold-coated AFM or STM) tip to enhance the Raman signals of molecules situated in its vicinity. The spatial resolution is approximately the size of the tip apex (20–30 nm). TERS has been shown to have sensitivity down to the single molecule level and holds some promise for bioanalysis applications.[48]

  • Surface plasmon polariton enhanced Raman scattering (SPPERS) – This approach exploits apertureless metallic conical tips for near field excitation of molecules. This technique differs from the TERS approach due to its inherent capability of suppressing the background field. In fact, when an appropriate laser source impinges on the base of the cone, a TM0 mode[49] (polaritonic mode) can be locally created, namely far away from the excitation spot (apex of the tip). The mode can propagate along the tip without producing any radiation field up to the tip apex where it interacts with the molecule. In this way, the focal plane is separated from the excitation plane by a distance given by the tip length, and no background plays any role in the Raman excitation of the molecule.[50][51][52][53]

  • Micro-cavity substrates – A method that improves the detection limit of conventional Raman spectra using micro-Raman in a micro-cavity coated with reflective Au or Ag. The micro-cavity has a radius of several micrometers and enhances the entire Raman signal by providing multiple excitations of the sample and couples the forward-scattered Raman photons toward the collection optics in the back-scattered Raman geometry.[54]

  • Stand-off remote Raman. In standoff Raman, the sample is measured at a distance from the Raman spectrometer, usually by using a telescope for light collection. Remote Raman spectroscopy was proposed in the 1960s[55] and initially developed for the measurement of atmospheric gases.[56] The technique was extended In 1992 by Angel et al. for standoff Raman detection of hazardous inorganic and organic compounds.[57] Standoff Raman detection offers a fast-Raman mode of analyzing large areas such as a football field in minutes. A pulsed laser source and gated detector allow Raman spectra measurements in the daylight[58] and reduces the long-lived fluorescent background generated by transition ions and rare earth ions. Another way to avoid fluorescence, first demonstrated by Sandy Asher in 1984, is to use a UV laser probe beam. At wavelengths of 260 nm, there is effectively no fluorescence interference and the UV signal is inherently strong.[25][59][60] A 10X beam expander mounted in front of the laser allows focusing of the beam and a telescope is directly coupled through the camera lens for signal collection. With the system's time-gating capability it is possible to measure remote Raman of your distant target and the atmosphere between the laser and target.[25]




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PORTFOLIO: Federal Patent Awards and Invention Documents





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A small sample of our patents:



1 9,294,449 Full-Text Low latency active noise cancellation system with client intercommunication
2 8,972,718 Full-Text System and method for providing load balanced secure media content and data delivery in a distributed computing environment
3 8,936,609 Full-Text Apparatus and method for manipulating or retracting tissue and anatomical structure
4 8,932,184 Full-Text Hydrogen storage, distribution, and recovery system
7 8,706,815 Full-Text Mobile multi-network communications device
8 8,615,652 Full-Text System and method for providing load balanced secure media content and data delivery in a distributed computing environment
11 8,447,813 Full-Text Mobile multi-network communications device
13 8,297,686 Full-Text Inflatable electric and hybrid vehicle system
20 8,066,946 Full-Text Hydrogen storage, distribution, and recovery system
28 7,399,325 Full-Text Method and apparatus for a hydrogen fuel cassette distribution and recovery system
29 7,301,944 Full-Text Media file distribution with adaptive transmission protocols
30 7,279,222 Full-Text Solid-state hydrogen storage systems
31 7,182,295 Full-Text Personal flight vehicle and system
32 7,169,489 Full-Text Hydrogen storage, distribution, and recovery system
33 7,011,768 Full-Text Methods for hydrogen storage using doped alanate compositions
36 6,370,139 Full-Text System and method for providing information dispersal in a networked computing environment
37 D451,096 Full-Text Wireless media access and storage apparatus
38 5,759,044 Full-Text Methods and apparatus for generating and processing synthetic and absolute real time environments
39 5,513,130 Full-Text Methods and apparatus for generating and processing synthetic and absolute real time environments
40 5,255,211 Full-Text Methods and apparatus for generating and processing synthetic and absolute real time environments
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1 20160205077 Low Latency Active Noise Cancellation System with Client Intercommunication
6 20130297932 System and Method For Providing Load Balanced Secure Media Content And Data Delivery in a Distributed Computing Environment
9 20130071294 Hydrogen storage, distribution, and recovery system
17 20090043438 Inflatable Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System
18 20090010426 System and method for providing load balanced secure media content and data delivery in a distributed computing environment
22 20080120430 Peered Content Distribution
31 20070260987 Selective Displaying of Item Information in Videos
32 20070259220 Hydrogen storage, distribution, and recovery system
34 20070108073 Message broadcast system
38 20040213998 Solid-state hydrogen storage systems
39 20040094134 Methods and apparatus for converting internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles to hydrogen fuel
40 20040089763 Personal flight vehicle and system
41 20040065171 Soild-state hydrogen storage systems
42 20040023087 Hydrogen storage, distribution, and recovery system
43 20040016769 Hydrogen storage, distribution, and recovery system
44 20040009121 Methods for hydrogen storage using doped alanate compositions
45 20030234010 Methods and apparatus for converting internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles to hydrogen fuel
48 20020056142 Portable apparatus for providing wireless media access and storage and method thereof