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Scott received issued U.S. patents and trade secret filing certs on a technology that uses ions to move vehicles and spacecraft and NASA has now proven that it works

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ION propulsion now works on Earth and in space!

This Overlooked Theory Could Be The Missing Piece That Explains How The EM Drive Works

What if it doesn't break the laws of physics?

FIONA MACDONALD

Ever since the EM drive first made headlines, science lovers have puzzled over how the propulsion system seems to produce thrust, despite the fact it's 'impossible' according to one of the most fundamental laws of physics - Newton's third law of motion.

Now a team of physicists have put forward an alternative explanation - it turns out the EM drive could actually work without breaking any scientific laws, if we factor in a weird and often overlooked idea in quantum physics - pilot wave theory.

For those who need a refresher, the crux of the problem here is that the EM, or electromagnetic, drive appears to produce thrust without any fuel or propellant.

That's awesome because it means we can get to space with way less pay load - it's proposed it could even get us to Mars within 72 days.

But it's also perplexing, because, according to Newton's third law, every action must have an equal and opposite reaction. So without pushing any propellant out one end, the drive shouldn't be able to produce thrust in the opposite direction.

Still, as a NASA peer-reviewed paper showed last year, the drive does produce thrust, at least as far as we can currently tell. And a relatively large amount of thrust at that. We just don't know how.

So either our understanding of physics isn't right, or we're missing a big piece of the puzzle when it comes to the EM drive.

A new paper published in The Journal of Applied Physical Science International makes the argument that what we're missing is pilot wave theory - a slightly controversial alternative interpretation of quantum mechanics.

Researchers José Croca and Paulo Castro from the Centre for Philosophy of Sciences of the University of Lisbon in Portugal suggest that not only could pilot wave theory explain the mysterious behaviour of the EM drive, it could help to make it even more powerful.

"We have found that applying a pilot wave theory to NASA's EM drive frustum [or cone], we could explain its thrust without involving any external action applied to the system, as Newton's third law would require," Castro told ScienceAlert via email.

So what is pilot wave theory? Currently, the majority of physicists subscribe to the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, which states that particles do not have defined locations until they are observed.

Pilot wave theory, on the other hand, suggests that particles do have precise positions at all times, but in order for this to be the case, the world must also be strange in other ways – which is why many physicists have dismissed the idea.

But in recent years, the pilot wave theory has been increasing in popularity. The team has shown in its latest paper this theory could be tweaked slightly to apply to something bigger. Say, the EM drive. And it could explain the results we've been seeing.

Basically, pilot wave theory says that an object radiates a wave field, and it is then pulled or attracted to regions of that field that have higher intensity or energy density. In that way, the wave field is actually 'piloting' the object, hence the name.

Through modelling, the team showed that a sufficiently strong and asymmetrical electromagnetic field could act as a pilot wave. And that's exactly what the EM drive generates.

Because the cone, or frustum, of the EM drive is asymmetrical, it would also generate an asymmetrical wave field. As a result, the walls of the EM drive would move towards the areas of higher intensity, creating thrust.

While that might sound pretty out there, this was also actually a possible solution put forward by the NASA Eagleworks researchers in their seminal paper last year where they first reported the thrust generated by their device:

"[The] supporting physics model used to derive a force based on operating conditions in the test article can be categorised as a nonlocal hidden-variable theory, or pilot-wave theory for short."

To be clear, the researchers from the University of Lisbon haven't tested their proposal in a real device as yet.

They've only shown that it's possible, from a modelling point of view, for a pilot wave to guide the EM drive. But they've also shown how the idea could actually be tested in future.

"At the moment the most stringent empirical evidence comes from the EM drive behaviour," Castro told ScienceAlert. "However, we have also devised an experiment to detect and modulate subquantum waves."

Importantly, if the hypothesis is confirmed, it would mean the EM drive would not have to break Newton's third law. And the team hopes this might result in the device being taken seriously and more widely tested.

"EM drive is the future of space propelling motors," they said. "[Although] it will perhaps find its initial application in nano satellites or nano drones, at least before the effect can be scaled up to heavier machines."

Importantly, if a pilot wave does explain the thrust behind the device, then it could also lead to a way to make the propulsion system even more powerful in future, and it's as simple as tweaking the shape.

"We have seen that the effect could be enhanced using a different shape for the frustum," said Castro. "In fact a trumpet exponential form is expected to increase the thrust."

The team is now considering building its own experimental set up to study the phenomena and has invited anyone interested in the project to get in touch.

In the meantime, the NASA Eagleworks team continues to test out its device. And there are also groups looking to test the EM drive in space - or according to some rumours, already doing so - which would really show once and for all whether it works.

There's a lot we have yet to learn about the mysterious EM drive and it's a topic that continues to divide the science world. But whether or not it ends up being the future of space travel, at least it's teaching us more about the physics that govern our world.

The new research has been published in The Journal of Applied Physical Science International.

 

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How My Science Teams Can See Everything: The Laser Raman Spectroscopic Study Device

Seeing The Invisible...

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Help Sponsor This Socially Valuable Technology. CONTACT OUR TEAM

How My Science Teams Can See Everything: The Laser Raman Spectroscopic Study Device

Want to know about every toxin in your home, food or air? Want to see what is in that beverage you are about to drink? You can look at any object and know what it is and what it is made of with our E-Glasses interface. You can tune your life like you tune your music. You can dial-out certain substances and dial-in others. Our trade secret and patent-pending protected technology is the i-Pod of personal science. While large systems in this field exist, there is nothing out there for "regular folks". As they say: "If you can't buy it at Walgreens or Rite Aid, who cares?..." The technology is 100% functional right now. Factory DFM and volume price-point reduction is the final challenge.

A new gadget we are working on will let you put a device in your pocket that can tell you about every substance you put inside your body. It uses solid state lasers and other interesting things. What is the science behind part of it? Let’s take a look:

Micro-Laser Raman Spectroscopy is a spectroscopic analysis technique used to observe vibrational, rotational, and other low-frequency modes in a system.[1] Raman spectroscopy is commonly used in chemistry to provide a visual structure fingerprint by which molecules, and that which they make up, can be identified. It can see the particles that make up that which is around you by identifying their molucular components.

It relies on inelastic scattering, or Raman scattering, of monochromatic light, usually from a laser in the visible, near infrared, or near ultraviolet range. The laser light interacts with molecular vibrations, phonons, or other excitations in the system, resulting in the energy of the laser photons being shifted up or down. The shift in energy gives information about the vibrational modes in the system. Infrared spectroscopy yields similar, but complementary, information.

Typically, a sample is illuminated with a laser beam. Electromagnetic radiation from the illuminated spot is collected with a lens and sent through a monochromator. Elastic scattered radiation at the wavelength corresponding to the laser line (Rayleigh scattering) is filtered out by either a notch filter, edge pass filter, or a band pass filter, while the rest of the collected light is dispersed onto a detector.

Spontaneous Raman scattering is typically very weak, and as a result the main difficulty of Raman spectroscopy is separating the weak inelastically scattered light from the intense Rayleigh scattered laser light. Historically, Raman spectrometers used holographic gratings and multiple dispersion stages to achieve a high degree of laser rejection. In the past, photomultipliers were the detectors of choice for dispersive Raman setups, which resulted in long acquisition times. However, modern instrumentation almost universally employs notch or edge filters for laser rejection and spectrographs either axial transmissive (AT), Czerny–Turner (CT) monochromator, or FT (Fourier transform spectroscopy based), and CCD detectors.

The advanced types of Raman spectroscopy include surface-enhanced Raman, resonance Raman, tip-enhanced Raman, polarized Raman, stimulated Raman (analogous to stimulated emission), transmission Raman, spatially offset Raman, and hyper Raman.

The Raman effect occurs when electromagnetic radiation interacts with a solid, liquid, or gaseous molecule’s polarizable electron density and bonds. The spontaneous effect is a form of inelastic light scattering, where a photon excites the molecule in either the ground (lowest energy) or excited rovibronic state (a rotational and vibrational energy level within an electronic state). This excitation puts the molecule into a virtual energy state for a short time before the photon scatters inelastically. Inelastic scattering means that the scattered photon can be of either lower or higher energy than the incoming photon, compared to elastic, or Rayleigh, scattering where the scattered photon has the same energy as the incoming photon. After interacting with the photon, the molecule is in a different rotational or vibrational state. This change in energy between the initial and final rovibronic states causes the scattered photon's frequency to shift away from the excitation wavelength (that of the incoming photon), called the Rayleigh line.

For the total energy of the system to remain constant after the molecule moves to a new rovibronic state, the scattered photon shifts to a different energy, and therefore a different frequency. This energy difference is equal to that between the initial and final rovibronic states of the molecule. If the final state is higher in energy than the initial state, the scattered photon will be shifted to a lower frequency (lower energy) so that the total energy remains the same. This shift in frequency is called a Stokes shift, or downshift. If the final state is lower in energy, the scattered photon will be shifted to a higher frequency, which is called an anti-Stokes shift, or upshift.

For a molecule to exhibit a Raman effect, there must be a change in its electric dipole-electric dipole polarizability with respect to the vibrational coordinate corresponding to the rovibronic state. The intensity of the Raman scattering is proportional to this polarizability change. Therefore, the Raman spectrum, scattering intensity as a function of the frequency shifts, depends on the rovibronic states of the molecule.

The Raman effect is based on the interaction between the electron cloud of a sample and the external electrical field of the monochromatic light, which can create an induced dipole moment within the molecule based on its polarizability. Because the laser light does not excite the molecule there can be no real transition between energy levels.[2] The Raman effect should not be confused with emission (fluorescence or phosphorescence), where a molecule in an excited electronic state emits a photon and returns to the ground electronic state, in many cases to a vibrationally excited state on the ground electronic state potential energy surface. Raman scattering also contrasts with infrared (IR) absorption, where the energy of the absorbed photon matches the difference in energy between the initial and final rovibronic states. The dependence of Raman on the electric dipole-electric dipole polarizability derivative also differs from IR spectroscopy, which depends on the electric dipole moment derivative, the atomic polar tensor (APT). This contrasting feature allows rovibronic transitions that might not be active in IR to be analyzed using Raman spectroscopy, as exemplified by the rule of mutual exclusion in centrosymmetric molecules. Transitions which have large Raman intensities often have weak IR intensities and vice versa. A third vibrational spectroscopy technique, inelastic incoherent neutron scattering (IINS), can be used to determine the frequencies of vibrations in highly symmetric molecules that may be both IR and Raman inactive. The IINS selection rules, or allowed transitions, differ from those of IR and Raman, so the three techniques are complementary. They all give the same frequency for a given vibrational transition, but the relative intensities provide different information due to the different types of interaction between the molecule and the incoming particles, photons for IR and Raman, and neutrons for IINS.

Although the inelastic scattering of light was predicted by Adolf Smekal in 1923,[3] it was not observed in practice until 1928. The Raman effect was named after one of its discoverers, the Indian scientist Sir C. V. Raman, who observed the effect by means of sunlight (1928, together with K. S. Krishnan and independently by Grigory Landsberg and Leonid Mandelstam).[1] Raman won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1930 for this discovery accomplished using sunlight, a narrow-band photographic filter to create monochromatic light, and a "crossed filter" to block this monochromatic light. He found that a small amount of light had changed frequency and passed through the "crossed" filter.

Systematic pioneering theory of the Raman effect was developed by Czechoslovak physicist George Placzek between 1930 and 1934.[4] The mercury arc became the principal light source, first with photographic detection and then with spectrophotometric detection.

In the years following its discovery, Raman spectroscopy was used to provide the first catalog of molecular vibrational frequencies. Originally, heroic measures were required to obtain Raman spectra due to the low sensitivity of the technique. Typically, the sample was held in a long tube and illuminated along its length with a beam of filtered monochromatic light generated by a gas discharge lamp. The photons that were scattered by the sample were collected through an optical flat at the end of the tube. To maximize the sensitivity, the sample was highly concentrated (1 M or more) and relatively large volumes (5 mL or more) were used. Consequently, the use of Raman spectroscopy dwindled when commercial IR spectrophotometers became available in the 1940s. However, the advent of the laser in the 1960s resulted in simplified Raman spectroscopy instruments and also boosted the sensitivity of the technique. This has revived the use of Raman spectroscopy as a common analytical technique.

Raman shifts are typically reported in wavenumbers, which have units of inverse length, as this value is directly related to energy. In order to convert between spectral wavelength and wavenumbers of shift in the Raman spectrum.

Raman spectroscopy is used in chemistry to identify molecules and study chemical bonding. Because vibrational frequencies are specific to a molecule’s chemical bonds and symmetry (the fingerprint region of organic molecules is in the wavenumber range 500–1500 cm−1,[5] Raman provides a fingerprint to identify molecules. For instance, Raman and IR spectra were used to determine the vibrational frequencies of SiO, Si2O2, and Si3O3 on the basis of normal coordinate analyses.[6] Raman is also used to study the addition of a substrate to an enzyme.

In solid-state physics, Raman spectroscopy is used to characterize materials, measure temperature, and find the crystallographic orientation of a sample. As with single molecules, a solid material can be identified by characteristic phonon modes. Information on the population of a phonon mode is given by the ratio of the Stokes and anti-Stokes intensity of the spontaneous Raman signal. Raman spectroscopy can also be used to observe other low frequency excitations of a solid, such as plasmons, magnons, and superconducting gap excitations. Distributed temperature sensing (DTS) uses the Raman-shifted backscatter from laser pulses to determine the temperature along optical fibers. The orientation of an anisotropic crystal can be found from the polarization of Raman-scattered light with respect to the crystal and the polarization of the laser light, if the crystal structure’s point group is known.

In nanotechnology, a Raman microscope can be used to analyze nanowires to better understand their structures, and the radial breathing mode of carbon nanotubes is commonly used to evaluate their diameter.

Raman active fibers, such as aramid and carbon, have vibrational modes that show a shift in Raman frequency with applied stress. Polypropylene fibers exhibit similar shifts.

In solid state chemistry and the bio-pharmaceutical industry, Raman spectroscopy can be used to not only identify active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), but to identify their polymorphic forms, if more than one exist. For example, the drug Cayston (aztreonam), marketed by Gilead Sciences for cystic fibrosis,[7] can be identified and characterized by IR and Raman spectroscopy. Using the correct polymorphic form in bio-pharmaceutical formulations is critical, since different forms have different physical properties, like solubility and melting point.

Raman spectroscopy has a wide variety of applications in biology and medicine. It has helped confirm the existence of low-frequency phonons[8] in proteins and DNA,[9][10][11][12] promoting studies of low-frequency collective motion in proteins and DNA and their biological functions.[13][14] Raman reporter molecules with olefin or alkyne moieties are being developed for tissue imaging with SERS-labeled antibodies.[15] Raman spectroscopy has also been used as a noninvasive technique for real-time, in situ biochemical characterization of wounds. Multivariate analysis of Raman spectra has enabled development of a quantitative measure for wound healing progress.[16] Spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS), which is less sensitive to surface layers than conventional Raman, can be used to discover counterfeit drugs without opening their packaging, and to non-invasively study biological tissue.[17] A huge reason why Raman spectroscopy is so useful in biological applications is because its results often do not face interference from water molecules, due to the fact that they have permanent dipole moments, and as a result, the Raman scattering cannot be picked up on. This is a large advantage, specifically in biological applications.[18] Raman spectroscopy also has a wide usage for studying biominerals.[19] Lastly, Raman gas analyzers have many practical applications, including real-time monitoring of anesthetic and respiratory gas mixtures during surgery.

Raman spectroscopy is an efficient and non-destructive way to investigate works of art.[20] Identifying individual pigments in paintings and their degradation products provides insight into the working method of the artist. It also gives information about the original state of the painting in cases where the pigments degraded with age.[21] In addition to paintings, Raman spectroscopy can be used to investigate the chemical composition of historical documents (such as the Book of Kells), which can provide insight about the social and economic conditions when they were created.[22] It also offers a noninvasive way to determine the best method of preservation or conservation of such materials.

Raman spectroscopy has been used in several research projects as a means to detect explosives from a safe distance using laser beams.[23][24][25] Airports and transit areas in NY City and Paris now use laser explosive detection.

Raman Spectroscopy is being further developed so it could be used in the clinical setting. Raman4Clinic is a European organization that is working on incorporating Raman Spectroscopy techniques in the medical field. They are currently working on different projects, one of them being monitoring cancer using bodily fluids such as urine and blood samples which are easily accessible. This technique would be less stressful on the patients than constantly having to take biopsies which are not always risk free.[26]

Handheld spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) has just been developed for a novel application to food security, in this case counterfeiting/food fraud. The first time such a handheld device has been used in a food or beverage product, it was able to detect multiple chemical markers of counterfeit alcohol in extremely low concentrations. This included six denaturants and four additives commonly used by counterfeiters worldwide. This was achievable directly through the bottle without any contact with the sample and through multiple colours of commercial bottles of a variety of spirit drinks.[27]

 

 

Comparison of topographical (AFM, top) and Raman images of GaSe. Scale bar is 5 μm.[28]

Raman spectroscopy offers several advantages for microscopic analysis. Since it is a scattering technique, specimens do not need to be fixed or sectioned. Raman spectra can be collected from a very small volume (< 1 µm in diameter); these spectra allow the identification of species present in that volume. Water does not generally interfere with Raman spectral analysis. Thus, Raman spectroscopy is suitable for the microscopic examination of minerals, materials such as polymers and ceramics, cells, proteins and forensic trace evidence. A Raman microscope begins with a standard optical microscope, and adds an excitation laser, a monochromator, and a sensitive detector (such as a charge-coupled device (CCD), or photomultiplier tube (PMT)). FT-Raman has also been used with microscopes. Ultraviolet microscopes and UV enhanced optics must be used when a UV laser source is used for Raman microspectroscopy.

In direct imaging, the whole field of view is examined for scattering over a small range of wavenumbers (Raman shifts). For instance, a wavenumber characteristic for cholesterol could be used to record the distribution of cholesterol within a cell culture.

The other approach is hyperspectral imaging or chemical imaging, in which thousands of Raman spectra are acquired from all over the field of view. The data can then be used to generate images showing the location and amount of different components. Taking the cell culture example, a hyperspectral image could show the distribution of cholesterol, as well as proteins, nucleic acids, and fatty acids. Sophisticated signal- and image-processing techniques can be used to ignore the presence of water, culture media, buffers, and other interference.

Raman microscopy, and in particular confocal microscopy, has very high spatial resolution. For example, the lateral and depth resolutions were 250 nm and 1.7 µm, respectively, using a confocal Raman microspectrometer with the 632.8 nm line from a helium–neon laser with a pinhole of 100 µm diameter. Since the objective lenses of microscopes focus the laser beam to several micrometres in diameter, the resulting photon flux is much higher than achieved in conventional Raman setups. This has the added benefit of enhanced fluorescence quenching. However, the high photon flux can also cause sample degradation, and for this reason some setups require a thermally conducting substrate (which acts as a heat sink) in order to mitigate this process. Another approach called global Raman imaging[29] uses complete monochromatic images instead of reconstruction of images from acquired spectra. This technique is being used for the characterization of large scale devices, mapping of different compounds and dynamics study. It has already been use for the characterization of graphene layers,[30] J-aggregated dyes inside carbon nanotubes[31] and multiple other 2D materials such as MoS2 and WSe2. Since the excitation beam is dispersed over the whole field of view, those measurements can be done without damaging the sample.

By using Raman microspectroscopy, in vivo time- and space-resolved Raman spectra of microscopic regions of samples can be measured. As a result, the fluorescence of water, media, and buffers can be removed. Consequently, in vivo time- and space-resolved Raman spectroscopy is suitable to examine proteins, cells and organs.

Raman microscopy for biological and medical specimens generally uses near-infrared (NIR) lasers (785 nm diodes and 1064 nm Nd:YAG are especially common). The use of these lower energy wavelengths reduces the risk of damaging the specimen. However, the intensity of NIR Raman is low (owing to the ω4 dependence of Raman scattering intensity), and most detectors require very long collection times. Recently advances were made which had no destructive effect on mitochondria in the observation of changes in cytochrome c structure that occur in the process of electron transport and ATP synthesis.[32]

Sensitive detectors have become available, making the technique better suited to general use. Raman microscopy of inorganic specimens, such as rocks and ceramics and polymers, can use a broader range of excitation wavelengths.[33]

The polarization of the Raman scattered light also contains useful information. This property can be measured using (plane) polarized laser excitation and a polarization analyzer. Spectra acquired with the analyzer set at both perpendicular and parallel to the excitation plane can be used to calculate the depolarization ratio. Study of the technique is useful in teaching the connections between group theory, symmetry, Raman activity, and peaks in the corresponding Raman spectra.[34] Polarized light only gives access to some of the Raman active modes. By rotating the polarization you can gain access to the other modes. Each mode is separated according to its symmetry.[35]

The spectral information arising from this analysis gives insight into molecular orientation and vibrational symmetry. In essence, it allows the user to obtain valuable information relating to the molecular shape, for example in synthetic chemistry or polymorph analysis. It is often used to understand macromolecular orientation in crystal lattices, liquid crystals or polymer samples.[36]

It is convenient in polarised Raman spectroscopy to describe the propagation and polarisation directions using Porto's notation,[37] described by and named after Brazilian physicist Sergio Pereira da Silva Porto.

Variants

Several variations of Raman spectroscopy have been developed. The usual purpose is to enhance the sensitivity (e.g., surface-enhanced Raman), to improve the spatial resolution (Raman microscopy), or to acquire very specific information (resonance Raman).

  • Spontaneous Raman spectroscopy – Term used to describe Raman spectroscopy without enhancement of sensitivity.

  • Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) – Normally done in a silver or gold colloid or a substrate containing silver or gold. Surface plasmons of silver and gold are excited by the laser, resulting in an increase in the electric fields surrounding the metal. Given that Raman intensities are proportional to the electric field, there is large increase in the measured signal (by up to 1011). This effect was originally observed by Martin Fleischmann but the prevailing explanation was proposed by Van Duyne in 1977.[38] A comprehensive theory of the effect was given by Lombardi and Birke.[39]

  • Resonance Raman spectroscopy – The excitation wavelength is matched to an electronic transition of the molecule or crystal, so that vibrational modes associated with the excited electronic state are greatly enhanced. This is useful for studying large molecules such as polypeptides, which might show hundreds of bands in "conventional" Raman spectra. It is also useful for associating normal modes with their observed frequency shifts.[40]

  • Surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERRS) – A combination of SERS and resonance Raman spectroscopy that uses proximity to a surface to increase Raman intensity, and excitation wavelength matched to the maximum absorbance of the molecule being analysed.

  • Angle-resolved Raman spectroscopy – Not only are standard Raman results recorded but also the angle with respect to the incident laser. If the orientation of the sample is known then detailed information about the phonon dispersion relation can also be gleaned from a single test.[41]

  • Hyper Raman – A non-linear effect in which the vibrational modes interact with the second harmonic of the excitation beam. This requires very high power, but allows the observation of vibrational modes that are normally "silent". It frequently relies on SERS-type enhancement to boost the sensitivity.[42]

  • Optical tweezers Raman spectroscopy (OTRS) – Used to study individual particles, and even biochemical processes in single cells trapped by optical tweezers.

  • Stimulated Raman spectroscopy (SRS) – A pump-probe technique, where a spatially coincident, two color pulse (with polarization either parallel or perpendicular) transfers the population from ground to a rovibrationally excited state. If the difference in energy corresponds to an allowed Raman transition, scattered light will correspond to loss or gain in the pump beam.

  • Spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) – The Raman scattering beneath an obscuring surface is retrieved from a scaled subtraction of two spectra taken at two spatially offset points

  • Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) – Two laser beams are used to generate a coherent anti-Stokes frequency beam, which can be enhanced by resonance.

  • Raman optical activity (ROA) – Measures vibrational optical activity by means of a small difference in the intensity of Raman scattering from chiral molecules in right- and left-circularly polarized incident light or, equivalently, a small circularly polarized component in the scattered light.[43]

  • Transmission Raman – Allows probing of a significant bulk of a turbid material, such as powders, capsules, living tissue, etc. It was largely ignored following investigations in the late 1960s (Schrader and Bergmann, 1967)[44] but was rediscovered in 2006 as a means of rapid assay of pharmaceutical dosage forms.[45] There are medical diagnostic applications particularly in the detection of cancer.[25][46][47]

  • Inverse Raman spectroscopy.

  • Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) – Uses a metallic (usually silver-/gold-coated AFM or STM) tip to enhance the Raman signals of molecules situated in its vicinity. The spatial resolution is approximately the size of the tip apex (20–30 nm). TERS has been shown to have sensitivity down to the single molecule level and holds some promise for bioanalysis applications.[48]

  • Surface plasmon polariton enhanced Raman scattering (SPPERS) – This approach exploits apertureless metallic conical tips for near field excitation of molecules. This technique differs from the TERS approach due to its inherent capability of suppressing the background field. In fact, when an appropriate laser source impinges on the base of the cone, a TM0 mode[49] (polaritonic mode) can be locally created, namely far away from the excitation spot (apex of the tip). The mode can propagate along the tip without producing any radiation field up to the tip apex where it interacts with the molecule. In this way, the focal plane is separated from the excitation plane by a distance given by the tip length, and no background plays any role in the Raman excitation of the molecule.[50][51][52][53]

  • Micro-cavity substrates – A method that improves the detection limit of conventional Raman spectra using micro-Raman in a micro-cavity coated with reflective Au or Ag. The micro-cavity has a radius of several micrometers and enhances the entire Raman signal by providing multiple excitations of the sample and couples the forward-scattered Raman photons toward the collection optics in the back-scattered Raman geometry.[54]

  • Stand-off remote Raman. In standoff Raman, the sample is measured at a distance from the Raman spectrometer, usually by using a telescope for light collection. Remote Raman spectroscopy was proposed in the 1960s[55] and initially developed for the measurement of atmospheric gases.[56] The technique was extended In 1992 by Angel et al. for standoff Raman detection of hazardous inorganic and organic compounds.[57] Standoff Raman detection offers a fast-Raman mode of analyzing large areas such as a football field in minutes. A pulsed laser source and gated detector allow Raman spectra measurements in the daylight[58] and reduces the long-lived fluorescent background generated by transition ions and rare earth ions. Another way to avoid fluorescence, first demonstrated by Sandy Asher in 1984, is to use a UV laser probe beam. At wavelengths of 260 nm, there is effectively no fluorescence interference and the UV signal is inherently strong.[25][59][60] A 10X beam expander mounted in front of the laser allows focusing of the beam and a telescope is directly coupled through the camera lens for signal collection. With the system's time-gating capability it is possible to measure remote Raman of your distant target and the atmosphere between the laser and target.[25]

 

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SPONSOR, OR INVEST IN, A GREAT NEW TECHNOLOGY

Want To Invest In The Future And Make Money When We Make Money?

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CONTACT OUR TEAM TO FIND OUT ABOUT INVESTING IN, OR SPONSORING, THE FUTURE!

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MEDIA: STAR RANGER - Award Winning Video. First 3D VR Theme Park Film Produced Entirely On PC's

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CLICK THIS LINK TO SEE THE VIDEO (Starts after 20 second delay) >> : STAR-RANGER Scott Douglas Redmond Producer Director.m4v

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"...in 1997, "Star Ranger" was considered to be a nearly impossible feat for a couple of simple PC computers to pull off. Up until that time, banks of Linux work-stations and warehouses full of programmers had been required to accomplish similar efforts..."

Scott Douglas Redmond was the Producer, Director and Writer for the project.

CLICK EACH THUMBNAIL, BELOW, FOR STAR RANGER PROJECT GALLERY:

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INFO: With Scott, You Are Only Limited By Your Imagination...

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ideas into tangible deliverables and assets!

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OPPORTUNITY: The Innovation Factory Redux

OPPORTUNITY: The Innovation Factory Redux

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OPPORTUNITY: The Innovation Factory Redux

You can invest in our growth. You finance one of these new facilities and you get a percentage of the profits.

Sponsor this auxiliary-expansion project and reap the rewards of a percentage of all of the IP profits from the facility that you sponsor. Be part of an actual "idea and product factory"!

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BE PART OF:

  • 50 engineers and development specialists
  • 10,000 square feet of the finest pre-volume engineering and build shops in the world
  • At least one new invention filed with the U.S. Government every three days
  • The finest CNC, lith, machining, sintering, stereolith, shop equipment
  • Multiple government contracts engaged at all times
  • The greatest showcase of bleeding edge prototypes for manufacturing partnerships
  • Faster and better G&A than any larger competitor
  • A record-breaking volume of patents, fully operational pre-volume units and engineering plans

CONTACT US to inquire about co-sponsoring an Innovation Factory Redux

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SHOP SHOTS FROM SOME OF SCOTT'S SHOP SPACES:

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HELP POWER A TEAM OF THE BEST AND THE BRIGHTEST CREATORS IN THE WORLD:

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INFO: How Scott's Innovation Teams Work

Want to See Scott Operates his Team? This Article Provides a Great Overview:

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THE INNOVATION DREAM TEAM: OPPOSITES SUCCEED

Jeanne M. Liedtka and Randy Salzman 

As an increasingly popular approach to business innovation, the crux of design thinking is that it embraces both creativity and analytical thinking to solve problems; two sides of the design thinking coin, both are essential to the design thinking process.

As such, one key to design thinking is for designers to empathize with those who see the world through what Stanford psychologist Carol Dweck calls a “fixed mindset” — many of whom may be corporate or bureaucratic managers — and vice versa. Having learned at an early age that “life’s a test, try not to look stupid,” the fixed mindseter (whom we call “George”) usually digs deeply into a specialty and masters the intricacies of it, while designer-types, who usually enjoy what Dweck calls a “growth mindset,” see life as a journey of discovery and, therefore, have developed a more diverse repertoire.

A Potential Dream Team

There is a natural tension between these two mindsets, as one usually sticks to the same silo, mastering details and becoming reticent about disruptive change, and the other (whom we call “Geoffrey”) bounces in and out of silos, easily bored with those same intricacies and excited by the weird and the new. Like an exhilarating relationship, the smart Geoffrey and smart George become the “opposites who attract,” instead of the antithetical couples who get bogged down in their differences. Keeping the “creative types” and the “numbers people” on the same wavelength produces great ideas firmly anchored in the real world because Geoffreys have the propensity to embrace innovative ideas and Georges have the wisdom to devise tests for managing — not avoiding — any risks associated with Geoffreys’ imagined futures.

Geoffrey’s Turf vs. George’s Turf

The Geoffrey personality dominates in what we call the front end of design thinking, the What is and What if questions, and George’s natural home turf is in the back end, What wows and What works. If George withholds his natural skepticism until several of Geoffrey’s ideas are napkin pitched (when the organizational case for any new idea begins analysis), he is crucial for not allowing pie-in-the-sky ideas to overcome steely-eyed reality thinking. Too often, upper management can be easily awed by creative types and forget that the Geoffreys of the world, highly invested in their “brilliant” ideas, can become blind to any potential flaws. Identifying promising ideas is Geoffrey’s turf; ensuring that the promise is real is George’s.

Together, this is a formidable team. Opposed, this is no team at all. And design thinking, as practiced in the four-question, 15-step model, provides tools and methods for drawing the best of both personalities — whether that personality is literally two separate individuals or two aspects of the same human. One powerful tool is the methodology itself: When a George feels insecure during divergent “If anything were possible” thinking, he is still reassured he’s following a proven methodology and placated by checking off another box in that methodology. Other times, when the team needs to coalesce around design criteria, or assumption testing, or even very early in the process when teams decide whether design thinking is a solid approach for addressing their challenges, George’s attention to detail provides the foundation for Geoffrey’s creative thought.

Empathy Is Essential

Most design thinkers are Geoffreys and, like all humans, can face difficulty understanding others with different worldviews or mindsets. What seems simplicity itself to that Geoffrey personality might seem ridiculous to a George who may — because of his world view — rarely stick his hand up and chance being perceived stupid. The four-question methodology has Geoffreys all but begging Georges to expose flaws — at the right time and place, which is after What if creativity and before the expenditure of major dollars and resources when an organization pilots any new future.

A successful design thinker can use George and Geoffrey cooperation to truly empathize — different than sympathize or judge — with George. George is not stupid, or evil, or a “bean counter” who needs enlightened compassion, he’s rather essential to success because he helps Geoffrey recognize, and address, assumptions. He digs out the details that trip up even the best of ideas, and he does so after the ideas develop but while there is still time to solve those issues, not after Geoffrey has convinced the boss to turn over the checkbook — putting, of course, everyone’s necks on the line.

Jeanne M. Liedtka and Randy Salzman are authors of the upcoming book Design Thinking for the Greater Good: Innovation in the Social Sector (Columbia Business Press), a study of design-led innovation projects in government and social sectors.

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TELECOM: American Innovator Scott Douglas Redmond Receives Key U.S. Federal Government Engineering Validation

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American Innovator Scott Douglas Redmond Receives Key U.S. Federal Government Engineering Validation

By Andrew Cohen New York -

When you want to move high quality movies, large X-Ray files and big data sets over the internet you need to break those files up into something the internet can handle. Imagine trying to shove a single 15,000 pound elephant through your front door! It isn’t going to work very well. Let’s say that the elephant represents a high definition movie. You could push and shove and bend the elephant to try to jam him through your door. You might have to break the elephant in the process. This will be bad for both you and the elephant. Now let’s say you had 15,000 pounds worth of kittens that also represented that exact same movie. All you would need to do is open your door, put some catnip on the other side of the door and watch the kitties pour through the door like liquid mercury. That is how Bittorrent, Akamai, Kontiki and all of world’s high quality peer-to-peer mesh media distribution works; with the kittens and not the elephant. That is what Redmond invented and the federal government has now issued a large number of patent awards to Redmond to confirm it. Peer-to-peer mesh media distribution is the version with the kittens and the catnip.

It saves billions of dollars, eliminates the buffering stalls and lags, and gives you your media in the highest possible quality. Redmond’s technology also has advanced versions which are “the most anti-theft media files around.” The United States Government was challenged with investigating the claim over who first designed, engineered, documented, launched and first sold peer-to-peer mesh networked media distribution. Brahm Cohen of Bittorrent and Scott have had an ongoing bet about who was first. Scott Douglas Redmond won the bet! The government, the document records and the NDAs proved that Redmond was up and running years before Bittorrent. In one of Redmond’s deployments known as CLICKMOVIE, which was the first Netflix or Youtube-type online video storefront (before either of those companies even existed), Redmond was already delivering all of the functionality of YouTube years before YouTube was even formed.

Now Redmond is offering his technology to the world and helping disaster-relief and democracy programs with information and communication resources globally. Redmond created the first Democracy emergency services App, launched with the help of Steve Jobs and the Apple App store, for the Japanese Tsunami and later, for global refugee regions. Working with Sony Pictures’ most senior level executives, Redmond developed Sony Pictures MovieLink and Sony Vue online video distribution system. Redmond’s team is the only outside entity mentioned in extensive references in Sony’s own federal government patent filings. Redmond is strongly opposed to the use of his technology for piracy. He says that he built the technology for “efficiency and infrastructure cost savings and not for copyright violators...” In line with Peter Thiel’s “payback-is-a-bitch” efforts, Redmond has also been assisting with tabloid publication ethics efforts and counter-measures. When I asked Scott Douglas Redmond what he attributes his career of top problem solving inventions to, he says that “Luck is when preparation meets with opportunity. Observe the world around you and society will always tell you what it needs next. Then build the thing that will solve a problem for the most people.”

Redmond has been awarded dozens of U.S. federal patents on products in use by millions of people around the globe. He has sold companies and technologies to top investment groups ranging from global developers to Microsoft staff to federal agencies. What is Redmond working on next? With a wink, he replies “Something big…!”

 

 

Tags: Scott Redmond, Scott Douglas Redmond, Brahm Cohen, Sony Pictures, Bittorrent, Akamai, Kontiki, Microsoft, Peter Thiel, Movielink, Sony Vue, Sony Morpheus, ClickMovie, clickmovie.com, dropbox, qualcomm, Flashlinq, Peer-to-peer, Mesh networks, P2P Mesh, Democri-C

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TELECOM: Peer-To-Peer Mesh Network Technologies

The network technology that self-heals, saves billions and works anywhere on Earth

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PEER-TO-PEER Network Technologies By Scott

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: A variety of projects which deploy collaborative device connection to support communications in challenged regions and disaster situations. Our teams have built, patented, deployed and delivered some of the first, and leading, peer to peer technology in the world. Some of our team technology has saved many, many lives. PHYSICS: Any device that can see an electromagnetic signal can often also send an electromagnetic signal. Many devices, today, can send and receive many types of electromagnetic signals, on the same device, some concurrently. This approach turns each device (ie: your smartphone or gamebox)  into its own broadcasting, reception and relay station. This technology needs no servers, towers or infrastructure to operate. Signals can range from audio, radio, light, IR, UV, vibration, laser, reflection, GPS interrupts, induction,  and other modifications of the I/O capabilities of the device. USES:  To support communications in challenged regions and disaster situations

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http://www.vimeo.com/125658259

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http://www.vimeo.com/126023660

Related Past Projects:

Our team developed, engineered, produced, patented and marketed the software suite that has become one of the leading solutions sets in the intelligence, defense and emergency services arenas globally with over $300 Million invested in it’s production and deployment. One of the packages was distributed by Apple Computer with marketing personally accelerated by Steve Jobs in support of the Tsunami disaster. Other versions of the software have been used in refugee zones globally. When an illegal copycat version of our software failed in one region (Putting lives at risk), our authorized version kept on working. Our architecture has been proven to be unstoppable – against all odds. The full version STILL has yet to be hacked, in the field, by any known technology. It is STILL the least network- congestive, lowest-cost infrastructure, most ultra-secure, network solution in the world! A copy of the Movie: BIRTH OF A NATION was placed in the network flow out on the open web, using the technology, with a phrase imprinted across the center of the image. A $250,000.00 reward was offered to anyone who could provide a fully reassembled copy of the film with the imprinted image and certification headers intact. To this day: Nobody has been able to acquire that film sample off of the web, and reassemble it; proving the strength of the technology.
 

EMERGENCY REFUGEE COMMUNICATIONS FOR DISASTERS AND WAR-ZONES:

The CIA's associated group: IN-Q-TEL, invited us to show our technology to them and then delivered it, via their sister organization: New America Foundation, under the names Serval, Commotion, and other identifiers. Federal accounting agencies report that over $200M has been spent, to date, via State Department budgets, to deliver the system globally. Peer-to-peer data relaying is now the #1 software solution for troubled regions and disaster zones. 

Scott’s Original “Internet in a Suitcase” - Multiple U.S. Patents issued as "First-To-Invent"

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When inferior copy-cat versions failed, costing lives, our original version kept on working.

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Using the technology, only 3 people's cell phones can cover San Francisco from ocean-to-bay, without the need for any servers.

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FIRECHAT and other P2P Emergency Communications Systems Are Changing The World:


GET IT ON IOS STORES and at  https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.opengarden.firechat

The internet-free messaging app that’s sweeping the world

Apps use P2P combination of Bluetooth and WiFi

We already have Whatsapp, Facebook messenger, Snapchat etc, what makes FireChat different?
You can chat “off the grid”, even if there is no internet connection or mobile phone coverage. How is that possible? Instead of relying on a central server, it is based on peer-to-peer “mesh networking” and connects to nearby phones using Bluetooth and WiFi, with connectivity increasing as more people use it in an area. Firechat lets you talk anonymously Where might this be useful? According to FireChat, “on the beach or in the subway, at a big game or a trade show, camping in the wild or at a concert, or even travelling abroad, simply fire up the app with a friend or two and find out who else is there.” Seriously though. In Hong Kong mostly, where pro-democracy protesters are using it to communicate amid fears of network shutdowns. It’s also been used by Iraqis and Taiwanese students during their anti-Beijing Sunflower Movement. Aside from not being reliant on the internet (which some governments restrict), it is more clandestine and less traceable. You can also join group conversations How popular is FireChat? Over 100,000 people downloaded it in 24 hours in Hong Kong over the weekend, with the CEO saying that numbers are “booming” and up to 33,000 people were using the app at the same time.
CNN NEWS:

– Lasers, Video Projectors, Drones, P2P, coded-hashcodes, Mass-mouthing – GEEK VS. GEEK CYBERWAR! – Lasers write messages on buildings and project animations – Pocket video projectors show digital posters and movies on sides of buildings – Protestor’s drones monitor crowd safety – Entire New INTERNET, built by Democracy Protestors, does not use any corporate back-bone infrastructure. – Complex codes on Twitter and in TEXT messages have hidden meanings – Blinking laser dots on buildings use MORSE CODE – Arm Signals and hand signals use visual message relay – Hong Kong protesters in cyberwar

 

By Jeff Yang
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 A pro-democracy protester holds on to a barrier as he and others defend a barricade from attacks by rival protest groups in the Mong Kok district of Hong Kong on Saturday, October 4.

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 Pro-democracy student protesters pin a man to the ground after an assault during a scuffle with local residents in Mong Kok, Hong Kong on October 4. Friction persisted between pro-democracy protesters and opponents of their weeklong occupation of major Hong Kong streets, and police denied they had any connection to criminal gangs suspected of inciting attacks on largely peaceful demonstrators.

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 Pro-democracy protesters raise their arms in a sign of nonviolence as they protect a barricade from rival protest groups in the Mong Kok district of Hong Kong on October 4.
 
Students in the massive protests in Hong Kong want representative democracy
  • Jeff Yang: These protesters may be the most sophisticated and technologically savvy ever
  • He says Chinese authorities are blocking images and creating apps that trick protesters
  • Yang: Smartphone a great tool for populist empowerment but it can easily be used against us

Editor’s note: Jeff Yang is a columnist for The Wall Street Journal Online and can be heard frequently on radio as a contributor to shows such as PRI’s “The Takeaway” and WNYC’s “The Brian Lehrer Show.” He is the author of “I Am Jackie Chan: My Life in Action” and editor of the graphic novel anthologies “Secret Identities” and “Shattered.” The opinions expressed in this commentary are solely those of the author.

(CNN) — The massive protests in Hong Kong took an ugly turn on Friday when students pressing for representative democracy clashed with opponents, prompting a breakdown of talks aimed at defusing the crisis.

This negativity followed a week of remarkably peaceful civil disobedience in what has been dubbed the “Umbrella Revolution,” after the widely shared image of a man defiantly holding up an umbrella in a haze of police tear gas fired to disperse the tens of thousands of activists crowding the city’s main government and business thoroughfare, the region referred to as Central.

But protesters shrugged off the gas assault as if it had never happened. Behind the barricades, they studied for exams, coordinated the cleanup and recycling of trash generated by the crowd, and jerry-rigged guerrilla charging stations for the voluminous array of devices the demonstrators are using as part of the sophisticated war they’re waging on the virtual front, wielding the digital-age weapons of image feeds, live streaming video and ceaseless social media updates.

 
 
Jeff Yang

The Umbrella Revolution is hardly the first protest to harness the power of technology to coordinate activities and broadcast messages, but it’s almost certainly the most sophisticated.

Andrew Lih, a journalism professor at American University, discussed the infrastructure the activists have adopted in an article for Quartz, a system that incorporates fast wireless broadband, multimedia smartphones, aerial drones and mobile video projectors, cobbled together by pro-democracy geektivists like the ad-hoc hacker coalition Code4HK.

Given this remarkable show of force by the crowd under the Umbrella, it’s not surprising that Beijing has moved quickly to prevent transmissions from reaching the mainland, blocking Chinese access to Instagram, where images and videos from the demonstrations and police crackdowns are regularly being posted, and banning all posts on popular messaging sites like Weibo and WeChat carrying keywords that refer to the protests.

Activists have fought back by downloading the peer-to-peer “mesh messaging” app FireChat — which allows communication among nearby users even when centralized mobile services are unavailable by linking smartphones directly to one another via Bluetooth and wifi — in the hundreds of thousands, and by creating an elaborate system of numerical hashtags to stand in for forbidden terms.

For example, #689 is the codename for Hong Kong chief executive C.Y. Leung, referring to the number of votes he received in his selection as the region’s highest government representative, a scant majority of the 1,200 members of the the Communist Party-approved nominating committee. #8964 references Beijing’s brutal June 4, 1989, crackdown on student democracy activists in Tiananmen Square, which casts a looming shadow over the Occupy Central demonstrations.

These strategies seem to have prompted the Chinese authorities to resort to new and more insidious tactics. Links — seemingly posted by Code4HK — have begun popping up on social media, inviting users to download a new app that allows for secure coordination of protest activities.

Instead, clicking the link downloads a Trojan horse that gives its developers — presumed by some security experts to be “red hat’ hackers working with support from the Chinese government — open access to the messages, calls, contacts, location and even the bank information and passwords of those naive enough to download it.

That’s a harsh lesson not just for those living under authoritarian regimes, but for us citizens of nominally free and democratic societies as well.

The smartphone is by far the most formidable tool for populist empowerment ever invented, turning individual human beings into mobile broadcast platforms and decentralized mobs into self-organizing bodies. But it’s also jarringly easy for these devices to be used against us.

Here in the United States, revelations of the existence of massive government surveillance programs like the NSA’s PRISM have caused an uproar among digital libertarians. Likewise, criminal smartphone hacking and cloud cracking has led to the release of celebrity nude photos and sex videos, to the humiliation of those who thought them private.

The response from leading smartphone developers like Apple and Google has been to announce new methods of locking and encrypting information to make it harder for individuals, businesses or governments to gain access to our personal information.

But even as they add these fresh layers of security, they continue to extend the reach of these devices into our lives, with services that integrate frictionless financial transactions and home systems management into our smartphones, and wearable accessories that capture and transmit our very heartbeats.

Imagine how much control commercial exploiters, criminals — or overreaching law enforcement — might have if it gained access to all these features. The upshot is that we increasingly have to take matters into our own hands (and handsets), policing our online behavior and resisting the temptation to click on risky links.

It may be worth exploring innovative new tools that offer unblockable or truly secure alternatives to traditional communications, like the free VPN browser extension Hola, which evades global digital boundaries to Web access; open-source projects likeServal and Commotion, which are attempting to develop standards for mesh connectivity that route around the need for commercial mobile phone networks; and apps like RedPhone and Signal, which offer free, worldwide end-to-end encrypted voice conversations.

Most of these are works in progress. But as technology becomes ever more deeply embedded into our lifestyles, keeping our digital identities secure and private is becoming increasingly critical. And as the protests in Hong Kong have shown, the only solution may be to use technology to defend against technology — in other words, to fight fire with FireChat.

Read CNNOpinion’s new Flipboard magazine

Follow us on Twitter @CNNOpinion.

Join us on Facebook.com/CNNOpinion.


EXAMPLES OF TECHNOLOGY:

 

HTTP://p2p-Internet.weebly.com

 

IEEE Communications Magazine Publishes InterDigital Paper on P2P Communications

written by sstocker
 
InterDigital’s M2M team was recently published in the prestigious IEEE Communications Magazine with their article, “CA-P2P: Context-Aware Proximity-Based Peer-to-Peer Wireless Communications.” The work was co-authored by Chonggang Wang, Qing Li, Hongkun Li, Paul Russell, Jr. and Zhuo Chen, all engineers at InterDigital. The authors argue that CA-P2P may be a viable solution to both existing and new proximity-based services, including commercial applications such as advertising as well as emergency/disaster relief, when centralized networks may become unavailable.  Taking various levels of context into account during the P2P connection results in quick, efficient peer discovery and peer association. This will become increasingly important in the emerging fifth generation, with growing numbers of small cell and D2D communications becoming common. The paper delves into the benefits and challenges of CA-P2P and offers performance evaluations of simulations as evidence. Interested in learning even more? Visit our Vault, where you can search keywords such as peer-to-peer, device-to-device, D2D and IoT to find additional resources.

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MEDIA: VIRTUAL REALITY AND ENHANCED REALITY PROJECTS

Inventors of some of VR's first big hits!

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Virtual Reality & Simulation/Visualization Technologies

Our team is known as “The Father’s of VR”. They built, and received U.S. Government patent awards on, the first immersive VR and augmented digital reality systems. Some of those systems were very expensive, as high as $2.5M at the time. Now you buy them in retail stores for under $600.
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MORE PROJECT TRACK RECORD VIDEO: Our patented ShapeWALL Tactile VR Surface Modules, Pods, Mobile devices and Modeling surfaces. From “Crazy Idea” to functional tool:

Our super-low cost VR googles:

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 If you can use tape, scissors, glue and pliers; you can, most likely, build some of these systems yourself. You already have the main part of the electronics by using your phone, tablet, computer or gamebox. You don’t even have to tear any electronics apart. You can make what you already have do dual purpose. As shown in this image, and in the time-stamps on our patent filings and issuance’s, we developed one of the first, if not the first, uses of a smartphone as the head-mounted display and position-sensor unit:   Discussion Of Parts Suppliers: Get a new back mount or get new lenses and swap them out when you need to. It is designed for hot swap lenses. Ideal lenses are the stacked Fresnel flat stamp 70-120 degree or the Erfle 65 degree lens, or the Plano Convex 92/95 degree lens. These lenses, or lens sets, can be purchased from various suppliers online for less than $30.00. You can hot dip the whole mount in truck bed coating or black electrical tape-it for various amounts of blackout/immersion of the unit. (A famous game company spent millions on legal research to determine that due to past litigation from users of other gaming VR headsets from other companies, not ours, one cannot legally sell you a fully blacked-out headset mount.) You choose your safest blackout/immersion level based on your use and safety parameters.


Past VR Work & Products Include:

The U.S. Government, after extensive investigation, awarded us multiple seminal patents as sole inventor of immersive virtual reality chambers, now known as “The Cave” or “The Holodeck”. This technology is used in the highest end tactical mission simulators and defense training systems:  We has consulted on Virtual Reality, Networked Simulation and wearable visualization technologies for a number of government and corporate clients. Here is an E! Entertainment Network segment about Scott’s work with the Production of Oliver Stone’s“Wild Palms”:

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http://www.vimeo.com/125658258

CLICK EACH THUMBNAIL TO ENLARGE:

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TELECOM: LIGHT-CASTING EVEN WORKS IN OUTER SPACE

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Inquire about acquiring the issued mobile device patents on this technology

SCOTT'S PATENTED LIGHT-CASTING(TM) EVEN WORKS IN OUTER SPACE

THE INTERNET: POWERED BY LIGHT!

In 1977, a group of technicians and engineers in San Francisco, California went up on top of a mountain in the middle of San Francisco, named Twin Peaks, and broadcast the internet across all of San Francisco, Oakland and Berkeley in Northern California. They did not use wires or radio waves. They used light.

Entrepreneur and technologist Scott Douglas Redmond ( http://www.scottdouglasredmond.com/ ) , and his team of brilliant engineers rigged up a system on the mountain designed to save time and money, but they soon discovered other advantages. The city of San Francisco gave him the mountain for nearly a week, during which he received a mayoral proclamation and the donation of an entire radio station and the main laser used in Star Wars for special effects.

What happens when you give a legion of engineers a whole mountain in the middle of San Francisco?

…They beam light, audio and video to over two million people….just for fun!

Take 148 crew, one mountain, a city center with 7 million people around it and more candle-power than many small cities have, and you get the first outdoor urban light networked experience for a whole city!

The event was viewed by millions but 1000 people interacted with it on the first public web, connected by light

 

You could see the event, hear the event on the radio, transduce audio from the light and transduce basic video from the light. It was one of the first mass broadcasts using light as the delivery platform. If you were close enough, you could feel the sound. Satellites could see the event. Mr. Redmond has now taken this technology to consumer pockets. He has built mini versions of his Lightcaster and has been issued multiple patents by the U.S. Government on cell phones networked by light. Redmond has offered the patents, engineering and manufacturing rights to any manufacturer who wishes to deliver the “lightphone” to the volume consumer market.

WAVEY GRAVY – THE MC IN THE FILM: “WOODSTOCK”, Keeping the crew fired up at one of the Twin Peaks lightcasting events


 

This kind of internet-by-light now has a name. It is often called Light-Fi or Li-Fi

Li-Fi (Light Fidelity) is a bidirectional, high speed and fully networked wireless communication technology similar to Wi-Fi. The term was coined by Harald Haas [1] and is a form of visible light communication and a subset of optical wireless communications (OWC) and could be a complement to RF communication (Wi-Fi or Cellular network), or even a replacement in contexts of data broadcasting. It is so far measured to be about 100 times faster than some Wi-Fi implementations, reaching speeds of 224 gigabits per second.[2]

It is wireless and uses visible light communication or infra-red and near ultraviolet (instead of radio frequency waves) spectrum, part of optical wireless communications technology, which carries much more information, and has been proposed as a solution to the RF-bandwidth limitations.[3]

Technology details

This OWC technology uses light from light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as a medium to deliver networked, mobile, high-speed communication in a similar manner to Wi-Fi.[4] The Li-Fi market is projected to have a compound annual growth rate of 82% from 2013 to 2018 and to be worth over $6 billion per year by 2018.[5]

Visible light communications (VLC) works by switching the current to the LEDs off and on at a very high rate,[6] too quick to be noticed by the human eye. Although Li-Fi LEDs would have to be kept on to transmit data, they could be dimmed to below human visibility while still emitting enough light to carry data.[7] The light waves cannot penetrate walls which makes a much shorter range, though more secure from hacking, relative to Wi-Fi.[8][9] Direct line of sight isn't necessary for Li-Fi to transmit a signal; light reflected off the walls can achieve 70 Mbit/s.[10][11]

Li-Fi has the advantage of being useful in electromagnetic sensitive areas such as in aircraft cabins, hospitals and nuclear power plants[citation needed] without causing electromagnetic interference.[8][9] Both Wi-Fi and Li-Fi transmit data over the electromagnetic spectrum, but whereas Wi-Fi utilizes radio waves, Li-Fi uses visible light. While the US Federal Communications Commission has warned of a potential spectrum crisis because Wi-Fi is close to full capacity, Li-Fi has almost no limitations on capacity.[12] The visible light spectrum is 10,000 times larger than the entire radio frequency spectrum.[13] Researchers have reached data rates of over 10 Gbit/s, which is much faster than typical fast broadband in 2013.[14][15] Li-Fi is expected to be ten times cheaper than Wi-Fi.[7] Short range, low reliability and high installation costs are the potential downsides.[5][6]

PureLiFi demonstrated the first commercially available Li-Fi system, the Li-1st, at the 2014 Mobile World Congress in Barcelona.[16]

Bg-Fi is a Li-Fi system consisting of an application for a mobile device, and a simple consumer product, like an IoT (Internet of Things) device, with color sensor, microcontroller, and embedded software. Light from the mobile device display communicates to the color sensor on the consumer product, which converts the light into digital information. Light emitting diodes enable the consumer product to communicate synchronously with the mobile device.[17][18]

History

Harald Haas, who teaches at the University of Edinburgh in the UK, coined the term "Li-Fi" at his TED Global Talk where he introduced the idea of "Wireless data from every light".[19] He is Chair of Mobile Communications at the University of Edinburgh and co-founder of pureLiFi.[20]

The general term visible light communication (VLC), whose history dates back to the 1880s, includes any use of the visible light portion of the electromagnetic spectrum to transmit information. The D-Light project at Edinburgh's Institute for Digital Communications was funded from January 2010 to January 2012.[21] Haas promoted this technology in his 2011 TED Global talk and helped start a company to market it.[22] PureLiFi, formerly pureVLC, is an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) firm set up to commercialize Li-Fi products for integration with existing LED-lighting systems.[23][24]

In October 2011, companies and industry groups formed the Li-Fi Consortium, to promote high-speed optical wireless systems and to overcome the limited amount of radio-based wireless spectrum available by exploiting a completely different part of the electromagnetic spectrum.[25]

A number of companies offer uni-directional VLC products, which is not the same as Li-Fi - a term defined by the IEEE 802.15.7r1 standardization committee.[26]

VLC technology was exhibited in 2012 using Li-Fi.[27] By August 2013, data rates of over 1.6 Gbit/s were demonstrated over a single color LED.[28] In September 2013, a press release said that Li-Fi, or VLC systems in general, do not require line-of-sight conditions.[29] In October 2013, it was reported Chinese manufacturers were working on Li-Fi development kits.[30]

In April 2014, the Russian company Stins Coman announced the development of a Li-Fi wireless local network called BeamCaster. Their current module transfers data at 1.25 gigabytes per second but they foresee boosting speeds up to 5 GB/second in the near future.[31] In 2014 a new record was established by Sisoft (a Mexican company) that was able to transfer data at speeds of up to 10Gbit/s across a light spectrum emitted by LED lamps.[32]

Standards

Like Wi-Fi, Li-Fi is wireless and uses similar 802.11 protocols; but it uses visible light communication (instead of radio frequency waves), which has much wider bandwidth.

One part of VLC is modeled after communication protocols established by the IEEE 802 workgroup. However, the IEEE 802.15.7 standard is out-of-date, it fails to consider the latest technological developments in the field of optical wireless communications, specifically with the introduction of optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (O-OFDM) modulation methods which have been optimized for data rates, multiple-access and energy efficiency.[33] The introduction of O-OFDM means that a new drive for standardization of optical wireless communications is required.

Nonetheless, the IEEE 802.15.7 standard defines the physical layer (PHY) and media access control (MAC) layer. The standard is able to deliver enough data rates to transmit audio, video and multimedia services. It takes into account optical transmission mobility, its compatibility with artificial lighting present in infrastructures, and the interference which may be generated by ambient lighting. The MAC layer permits using the link with the other layers as with the TCP/IP protocol.[citation needed]

The standard defines three PHY layers with different rates:

  • The PHY I was established for outdoor application and works from 11.67 kbit/s to 267.6 kbit/s.

  • The PHY II layer permits reaching data rates from 1.25 Mbit/s to 96 Mbit/s.

  • The PHY III is used for many emissions sources with a particular modulation method called color shift keying (CSK). PHY III can deliver rates from 12 Mbit/s to 96 Mbit/s.[34]

The modulation formats recognized for PHY I and PHY II are on-off keying (OOK) and variable pulse position modulation (VPPM). The Manchester coding used for the PHY I and PHY II layers includes the clock inside the transmitted data by representing a logic 0 with an OOK symbol "01" and a logic 1 with an OOK symbol "10", all with a DC component. The DC component avoids light extinction in case of an extended run of logic 0's.[citation needed]

The first VLC smartphone prototype was presented at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas from January 7–10 in 2014. The phone uses SunPartner's Wysips CONNECT, a technique that converts light waves into usable energy, making the phone capable of receiving and decoding signals without drawing on its battery.[35][36] A clear thin layer of crystal glass can be added to small screens like watches and smartphones that make them solar powered. Smartphones could gain 15% more battery life during a typical day. This first smartphones using this technology should arrive in 2015. This screen can also receive VLC signals as well as the smartphone camera.[37] The cost of these screens per smartphone is between $2 and $3, much cheaper than most new technology.[38]

Philips lighting company has developed a VLC system for shoppers at stores. They have to download an app on their smartphone and then their smartphone works with the LEDs in the store. The LEDs can pinpoint where they are located in the store and give them corresponding coupons and information based on which aisle they are on and what they are looking at.[39]

Internet by light promises to leave Wi-Fi eating dust

By Laure Fillon