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How My Science Teams Can See Everything: The Laser Raman Spectroscopic Study Device

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How My Science Teams Can See Everything: The Laser Raman Spectroscopic Study Device

Want to know about every toxin in your home, food or air? Want to see what is in that beverage you are about to drink? You can look at any object and know what it is and what it is made of with our E-Glasses interface. You can tune your life like you tune your music. You can dial-out certain substances and dial-in others. Our trade secret and patent-pending protected technology is the i-Pod of personal science. While large systems in this field exist, there is nothing out there for "regular folks". As they say: "If you can't buy it at Walgreens or Rite Aid, who cares?..." The technology is 100% functional right now. Factory DFM and volume price-point reduction is the final challenge.

A new gadget we are working on will let you put a device in your pocket that can tell you about every substance you put inside your body. It uses solid state lasers and other interesting things. What is the science behind part of it? Let’s take a look:

Micro-Laser Raman Spectroscopy is a spectroscopic analysis technique used to observe vibrational, rotational, and other low-frequency modes in a system.[1] Raman spectroscopy is commonly used in chemistry to provide a visual structure fingerprint by which molecules, and that which they make up, can be identified. It can see the particles that make up that which is around you by identifying their molucular components.

It relies on inelastic scattering, or Raman scattering, of monochromatic light, usually from a laser in the visible, near infrared, or near ultraviolet range. The laser light interacts with molecular vibrations, phonons, or other excitations in the system, resulting in the energy of the laser photons being shifted up or down. The shift in energy gives information about the vibrational modes in the system. Infrared spectroscopy yields similar, but complementary, information.

Typically, a sample is illuminated with a laser beam. Electromagnetic radiation from the illuminated spot is collected with a lens and sent through a monochromator. Elastic scattered radiation at the wavelength corresponding to the laser line (Rayleigh scattering) is filtered out by either a notch filter, edge pass filter, or a band pass filter, while the rest of the collected light is dispersed onto a detector.

Spontaneous Raman scattering is typically very weak, and as a result the main difficulty of Raman spectroscopy is separating the weak inelastically scattered light from the intense Rayleigh scattered laser light. Historically, Raman spectrometers used holographic gratings and multiple dispersion stages to achieve a high degree of laser rejection. In the past, photomultipliers were the detectors of choice for dispersive Raman setups, which resulted in long acquisition times. However, modern instrumentation almost universally employs notch or edge filters for laser rejection and spectrographs either axial transmissive (AT), Czerny–Turner (CT) monochromator, or FT (Fourier transform spectroscopy based), and CCD detectors.

The advanced types of Raman spectroscopy include surface-enhanced Raman, resonance Raman, tip-enhanced Raman, polarized Raman, stimulated Raman (analogous to stimulated emission), transmission Raman, spatially offset Raman, and hyper Raman.

The Raman effect occurs when electromagnetic radiation interacts with a solid, liquid, or gaseous molecule’s polarizable electron density and bonds. The spontaneous effect is a form of inelastic light scattering, where a photon excites the molecule in either the ground (lowest energy) or excited rovibronic state (a rotational and vibrational energy level within an electronic state). This excitation puts the molecule into a virtual energy state for a short time before the photon scatters inelastically. Inelastic scattering means that the scattered photon can be of either lower or higher energy than the incoming photon, compared to elastic, or Rayleigh, scattering where the scattered photon has the same energy as the incoming photon. After interacting with the photon, the molecule is in a different rotational or vibrational state. This change in energy between the initial and final rovibronic states causes the scattered photon's frequency to shift away from the excitation wavelength (that of the incoming photon), called the Rayleigh line.

For the total energy of the system to remain constant after the molecule moves to a new rovibronic state, the scattered photon shifts to a different energy, and therefore a different frequency. This energy difference is equal to that between the initial and final rovibronic states of the molecule. If the final state is higher in energy than the initial state, the scattered photon will be shifted to a lower frequency (lower energy) so that the total energy remains the same. This shift in frequency is called a Stokes shift, or downshift. If the final state is lower in energy, the scattered photon will be shifted to a higher frequency, which is called an anti-Stokes shift, or upshift.

For a molecule to exhibit a Raman effect, there must be a change in its electric dipole-electric dipole polarizability with respect to the vibrational coordinate corresponding to the rovibronic state. The intensity of the Raman scattering is proportional to this polarizability change. Therefore, the Raman spectrum, scattering intensity as a function of the frequency shifts, depends on the rovibronic states of the molecule.

The Raman effect is based on the interaction between the electron cloud of a sample and the external electrical field of the monochromatic light, which can create an induced dipole moment within the molecule based on its polarizability. Because the laser light does not excite the molecule there can be no real transition between energy levels.[2] The Raman effect should not be confused with emission (fluorescence or phosphorescence), where a molecule in an excited electronic state emits a photon and returns to the ground electronic state, in many cases to a vibrationally excited state on the ground electronic state potential energy surface. Raman scattering also contrasts with infrared (IR) absorption, where the energy of the absorbed photon matches the difference in energy between the initial and final rovibronic states. The dependence of Raman on the electric dipole-electric dipole polarizability derivative also differs from IR spectroscopy, which depends on the electric dipole moment derivative, the atomic polar tensor (APT). This contrasting feature allows rovibronic transitions that might not be active in IR to be analyzed using Raman spectroscopy, as exemplified by the rule of mutual exclusion in centrosymmetric molecules. Transitions which have large Raman intensities often have weak IR intensities and vice versa. A third vibrational spectroscopy technique, inelastic incoherent neutron scattering (IINS), can be used to determine the frequencies of vibrations in highly symmetric molecules that may be both IR and Raman inactive. The IINS selection rules, or allowed transitions, differ from those of IR and Raman, so the three techniques are complementary. They all give the same frequency for a given vibrational transition, but the relative intensities provide different information due to the different types of interaction between the molecule and the incoming particles, photons for IR and Raman, and neutrons for IINS.

Although the inelastic scattering of light was predicted by Adolf Smekal in 1923,[3] it was not observed in practice until 1928. The Raman effect was named after one of its discoverers, the Indian scientist Sir C. V. Raman, who observed the effect by means of sunlight (1928, together with K. S. Krishnan and independently by Grigory Landsberg and Leonid Mandelstam).[1] Raman won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1930 for this discovery accomplished using sunlight, a narrow-band photographic filter to create monochromatic light, and a "crossed filter" to block this monochromatic light. He found that a small amount of light had changed frequency and passed through the "crossed" filter.

Systematic pioneering theory of the Raman effect was developed by Czechoslovak physicist George Placzek between 1930 and 1934.[4] The mercury arc became the principal light source, first with photographic detection and then with spectrophotometric detection.

In the years following its discovery, Raman spectroscopy was used to provide the first catalog of molecular vibrational frequencies. Originally, heroic measures were required to obtain Raman spectra due to the low sensitivity of the technique. Typically, the sample was held in a long tube and illuminated along its length with a beam of filtered monochromatic light generated by a gas discharge lamp. The photons that were scattered by the sample were collected through an optical flat at the end of the tube. To maximize the sensitivity, the sample was highly concentrated (1 M or more) and relatively large volumes (5 mL or more) were used. Consequently, the use of Raman spectroscopy dwindled when commercial IR spectrophotometers became available in the 1940s. However, the advent of the laser in the 1960s resulted in simplified Raman spectroscopy instruments and also boosted the sensitivity of the technique. This has revived the use of Raman spectroscopy as a common analytical technique.

Raman shifts are typically reported in wavenumbers, which have units of inverse length, as this value is directly related to energy. In order to convert between spectral wavelength and wavenumbers of shift in the Raman spectrum.

Raman spectroscopy is used in chemistry to identify molecules and study chemical bonding. Because vibrational frequencies are specific to a molecule’s chemical bonds and symmetry (the fingerprint region of organic molecules is in the wavenumber range 500–1500 cm−1,[5] Raman provides a fingerprint to identify molecules. For instance, Raman and IR spectra were used to determine the vibrational frequencies of SiO, Si2O2, and Si3O3 on the basis of normal coordinate analyses.[6] Raman is also used to study the addition of a substrate to an enzyme.

In solid-state physics, Raman spectroscopy is used to characterize materials, measure temperature, and find the crystallographic orientation of a sample. As with single molecules, a solid material can be identified by characteristic phonon modes. Information on the population of a phonon mode is given by the ratio of the Stokes and anti-Stokes intensity of the spontaneous Raman signal. Raman spectroscopy can also be used to observe other low frequency excitations of a solid, such as plasmons, magnons, and superconducting gap excitations. Distributed temperature sensing (DTS) uses the Raman-shifted backscatter from laser pulses to determine the temperature along optical fibers. The orientation of an anisotropic crystal can be found from the polarization of Raman-scattered light with respect to the crystal and the polarization of the laser light, if the crystal structure’s point group is known.

In nanotechnology, a Raman microscope can be used to analyze nanowires to better understand their structures, and the radial breathing mode of carbon nanotubes is commonly used to evaluate their diameter.

Raman active fibers, such as aramid and carbon, have vibrational modes that show a shift in Raman frequency with applied stress. Polypropylene fibers exhibit similar shifts.

In solid state chemistry and the bio-pharmaceutical industry, Raman spectroscopy can be used to not only identify active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), but to identify their polymorphic forms, if more than one exist. For example, the drug Cayston (aztreonam), marketed by Gilead Sciences for cystic fibrosis,[7] can be identified and characterized by IR and Raman spectroscopy. Using the correct polymorphic form in bio-pharmaceutical formulations is critical, since different forms have different physical properties, like solubility and melting point.

Raman spectroscopy has a wide variety of applications in biology and medicine. It has helped confirm the existence of low-frequency phonons[8] in proteins and DNA,[9][10][11][12] promoting studies of low-frequency collective motion in proteins and DNA and their biological functions.[13][14] Raman reporter molecules with olefin or alkyne moieties are being developed for tissue imaging with SERS-labeled antibodies.[15] Raman spectroscopy has also been used as a noninvasive technique for real-time, in situ biochemical characterization of wounds. Multivariate analysis of Raman spectra has enabled development of a quantitative measure for wound healing progress.[16] Spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS), which is less sensitive to surface layers than conventional Raman, can be used to discover counterfeit drugs without opening their packaging, and to non-invasively study biological tissue.[17] A huge reason why Raman spectroscopy is so useful in biological applications is because its results often do not face interference from water molecules, due to the fact that they have permanent dipole moments, and as a result, the Raman scattering cannot be picked up on. This is a large advantage, specifically in biological applications.[18] Raman spectroscopy also has a wide usage for studying biominerals.[19] Lastly, Raman gas analyzers have many practical applications, including real-time monitoring of anesthetic and respiratory gas mixtures during surgery.

Raman spectroscopy is an efficient and non-destructive way to investigate works of art.[20] Identifying individual pigments in paintings and their degradation products provides insight into the working method of the artist. It also gives information about the original state of the painting in cases where the pigments degraded with age.[21] In addition to paintings, Raman spectroscopy can be used to investigate the chemical composition of historical documents (such as the Book of Kells), which can provide insight about the social and economic conditions when they were created.[22] It also offers a noninvasive way to determine the best method of preservation or conservation of such materials.

Raman spectroscopy has been used in several research projects as a means to detect explosives from a safe distance using laser beams.[23][24][25] Airports and transit areas in NY City and Paris now use laser explosive detection.

Raman Spectroscopy is being further developed so it could be used in the clinical setting. Raman4Clinic is a European organization that is working on incorporating Raman Spectroscopy techniques in the medical field. They are currently working on different projects, one of them being monitoring cancer using bodily fluids such as urine and blood samples which are easily accessible. This technique would be less stressful on the patients than constantly having to take biopsies which are not always risk free.[26]

Handheld spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) has just been developed for a novel application to food security, in this case counterfeiting/food fraud. The first time such a handheld device has been used in a food or beverage product, it was able to detect multiple chemical markers of counterfeit alcohol in extremely low concentrations. This included six denaturants and four additives commonly used by counterfeiters worldwide. This was achievable directly through the bottle without any contact with the sample and through multiple colours of commercial bottles of a variety of spirit drinks.[27]

 

 

Comparison of topographical (AFM, top) and Raman images of GaSe. Scale bar is 5 μm.[28]

Raman spectroscopy offers several advantages for microscopic analysis. Since it is a scattering technique, specimens do not need to be fixed or sectioned. Raman spectra can be collected from a very small volume (< 1 µm in diameter); these spectra allow the identification of species present in that volume. Water does not generally interfere with Raman spectral analysis. Thus, Raman spectroscopy is suitable for the microscopic examination of minerals, materials such as polymers and ceramics, cells, proteins and forensic trace evidence. A Raman microscope begins with a standard optical microscope, and adds an excitation laser, a monochromator, and a sensitive detector (such as a charge-coupled device (CCD), or photomultiplier tube (PMT)). FT-Raman has also been used with microscopes. Ultraviolet microscopes and UV enhanced optics must be used when a UV laser source is used for Raman microspectroscopy.

In direct imaging, the whole field of view is examined for scattering over a small range of wavenumbers (Raman shifts). For instance, a wavenumber characteristic for cholesterol could be used to record the distribution of cholesterol within a cell culture.

The other approach is hyperspectral imaging or chemical imaging, in which thousands of Raman spectra are acquired from all over the field of view. The data can then be used to generate images showing the location and amount of different components. Taking the cell culture example, a hyperspectral image could show the distribution of cholesterol, as well as proteins, nucleic acids, and fatty acids. Sophisticated signal- and image-processing techniques can be used to ignore the presence of water, culture media, buffers, and other interference.

Raman microscopy, and in particular confocal microscopy, has very high spatial resolution. For example, the lateral and depth resolutions were 250 nm and 1.7 µm, respectively, using a confocal Raman microspectrometer with the 632.8 nm line from a helium–neon laser with a pinhole of 100 µm diameter. Since the objective lenses of microscopes focus the laser beam to several micrometres in diameter, the resulting photon flux is much higher than achieved in conventional Raman setups. This has the added benefit of enhanced fluorescence quenching. However, the high photon flux can also cause sample degradation, and for this reason some setups require a thermally conducting substrate (which acts as a heat sink) in order to mitigate this process. Another approach called global Raman imaging[29] uses complete monochromatic images instead of reconstruction of images from acquired spectra. This technique is being used for the characterization of large scale devices, mapping of different compounds and dynamics study. It has already been use for the characterization of graphene layers,[30] J-aggregated dyes inside carbon nanotubes[31] and multiple other 2D materials such as MoS2 and WSe2. Since the excitation beam is dispersed over the whole field of view, those measurements can be done without damaging the sample.

By using Raman microspectroscopy, in vivo time- and space-resolved Raman spectra of microscopic regions of samples can be measured. As a result, the fluorescence of water, media, and buffers can be removed. Consequently, in vivo time- and space-resolved Raman spectroscopy is suitable to examine proteins, cells and organs.

Raman microscopy for biological and medical specimens generally uses near-infrared (NIR) lasers (785 nm diodes and 1064 nm Nd:YAG are especially common). The use of these lower energy wavelengths reduces the risk of damaging the specimen. However, the intensity of NIR Raman is low (owing to the ω4 dependence of Raman scattering intensity), and most detectors require very long collection times. Recently advances were made which had no destructive effect on mitochondria in the observation of changes in cytochrome c structure that occur in the process of electron transport and ATP synthesis.[32]

Sensitive detectors have become available, making the technique better suited to general use. Raman microscopy of inorganic specimens, such as rocks and ceramics and polymers, can use a broader range of excitation wavelengths.[33]

The polarization of the Raman scattered light also contains useful information. This property can be measured using (plane) polarized laser excitation and a polarization analyzer. Spectra acquired with the analyzer set at both perpendicular and parallel to the excitation plane can be used to calculate the depolarization ratio. Study of the technique is useful in teaching the connections between group theory, symmetry, Raman activity, and peaks in the corresponding Raman spectra.[34] Polarized light only gives access to some of the Raman active modes. By rotating the polarization you can gain access to the other modes. Each mode is separated according to its symmetry.[35]

The spectral information arising from this analysis gives insight into molecular orientation and vibrational symmetry. In essence, it allows the user to obtain valuable information relating to the molecular shape, for example in synthetic chemistry or polymorph analysis. It is often used to understand macromolecular orientation in crystal lattices, liquid crystals or polymer samples.[36]

It is convenient in polarised Raman spectroscopy to describe the propagation and polarisation directions using Porto's notation,[37] described by and named after Brazilian physicist Sergio Pereira da Silva Porto.

Variants

Several variations of Raman spectroscopy have been developed. The usual purpose is to enhance the sensitivity (e.g., surface-enhanced Raman), to improve the spatial resolution (Raman microscopy), or to acquire very specific information (resonance Raman).

  • Spontaneous Raman spectroscopy – Term used to describe Raman spectroscopy without enhancement of sensitivity.

  • Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) – Normally done in a silver or gold colloid or a substrate containing silver or gold. Surface plasmons of silver and gold are excited by the laser, resulting in an increase in the electric fields surrounding the metal. Given that Raman intensities are proportional to the electric field, there is large increase in the measured signal (by up to 1011). This effect was originally observed by Martin Fleischmann but the prevailing explanation was proposed by Van Duyne in 1977.[38] A comprehensive theory of the effect was given by Lombardi and Birke.[39]

  • Resonance Raman spectroscopy – The excitation wavelength is matched to an electronic transition of the molecule or crystal, so that vibrational modes associated with the excited electronic state are greatly enhanced. This is useful for studying large molecules such as polypeptides, which might show hundreds of bands in "conventional" Raman spectra. It is also useful for associating normal modes with their observed frequency shifts.[40]

  • Surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERRS) – A combination of SERS and resonance Raman spectroscopy that uses proximity to a surface to increase Raman intensity, and excitation wavelength matched to the maximum absorbance of the molecule being analysed.

  • Angle-resolved Raman spectroscopy – Not only are standard Raman results recorded but also the angle with respect to the incident laser. If the orientation of the sample is known then detailed information about the phonon dispersion relation can also be gleaned from a single test.[41]

  • Hyper Raman – A non-linear effect in which the vibrational modes interact with the second harmonic of the excitation beam. This requires very high power, but allows the observation of vibrational modes that are normally "silent". It frequently relies on SERS-type enhancement to boost the sensitivity.[42]

  • Optical tweezers Raman spectroscopy (OTRS) – Used to study individual particles, and even biochemical processes in single cells trapped by optical tweezers.

  • Stimulated Raman spectroscopy (SRS) – A pump-probe technique, where a spatially coincident, two color pulse (with polarization either parallel or perpendicular) transfers the population from ground to a rovibrationally excited state. If the difference in energy corresponds to an allowed Raman transition, scattered light will correspond to loss or gain in the pump beam.

  • Spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) – The Raman scattering beneath an obscuring surface is retrieved from a scaled subtraction of two spectra taken at two spatially offset points

  • Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) – Two laser beams are used to generate a coherent anti-Stokes frequency beam, which can be enhanced by resonance.

  • Raman optical activity (ROA) – Measures vibrational optical activity by means of a small difference in the intensity of Raman scattering from chiral molecules in right- and left-circularly polarized incident light or, equivalently, a small circularly polarized component in the scattered light.[43]

  • Transmission Raman – Allows probing of a significant bulk of a turbid material, such as powders, capsules, living tissue, etc. It was largely ignored following investigations in the late 1960s (Schrader and Bergmann, 1967)[44] but was rediscovered in 2006 as a means of rapid assay of pharmaceutical dosage forms.[45] There are medical diagnostic applications particularly in the detection of cancer.[25][46][47]

  • Inverse Raman spectroscopy.

  • Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) – Uses a metallic (usually silver-/gold-coated AFM or STM) tip to enhance the Raman signals of molecules situated in its vicinity. The spatial resolution is approximately the size of the tip apex (20–30 nm). TERS has been shown to have sensitivity down to the single molecule level and holds some promise for bioanalysis applications.[48]

  • Surface plasmon polariton enhanced Raman scattering (SPPERS) – This approach exploits apertureless metallic conical tips for near field excitation of molecules. This technique differs from the TERS approach due to its inherent capability of suppressing the background field. In fact, when an appropriate laser source impinges on the base of the cone, a TM0 mode[49] (polaritonic mode) can be locally created, namely far away from the excitation spot (apex of the tip). The mode can propagate along the tip without producing any radiation field up to the tip apex where it interacts with the molecule. In this way, the focal plane is separated from the excitation plane by a distance given by the tip length, and no background plays any role in the Raman excitation of the molecule.[50][51][52][53]

  • Micro-cavity substrates – A method that improves the detection limit of conventional Raman spectra using micro-Raman in a micro-cavity coated with reflective Au or Ag. The micro-cavity has a radius of several micrometers and enhances the entire Raman signal by providing multiple excitations of the sample and couples the forward-scattered Raman photons toward the collection optics in the back-scattered Raman geometry.[54]

  • Stand-off remote Raman. In standoff Raman, the sample is measured at a distance from the Raman spectrometer, usually by using a telescope for light collection. Remote Raman spectroscopy was proposed in the 1960s[55] and initially developed for the measurement of atmospheric gases.[56] The technique was extended In 1992 by Angel et al. for standoff Raman detection of hazardous inorganic and organic compounds.[57] Standoff Raman detection offers a fast-Raman mode of analyzing large areas such as a football field in minutes. A pulsed laser source and gated detector allow Raman spectra measurements in the daylight[58] and reduces the long-lived fluorescent background generated by transition ions and rare earth ions. Another way to avoid fluorescence, first demonstrated by Sandy Asher in 1984, is to use a UV laser probe beam. At wavelengths of 260 nm, there is effectively no fluorescence interference and the UV signal is inherently strong.[25][59][60] A 10X beam expander mounted in front of the laser allows focusing of the beam and a telescope is directly coupled through the camera lens for signal collection. With the system's time-gating capability it is possible to measure remote Raman of your distant target and the atmosphere between the laser and target.[25]

 

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OPPORTUNITY: The Innovation Factory Redux

OPPORTUNITY: The Innovation Factory Redux

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OPPORTUNITY: The Innovation Factory Redux

You can invest in our growth. You finance one of these new facilities and you get a percentage of the profits.

Sponsor this auxiliary-expansion project and reap the rewards of a percentage of all of the IP profits from the facility that you sponsor. Be part of an actual "idea and product factory"!

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BE PART OF:

  • 50 engineers and development specialists
  • 10,000 square feet of the finest pre-volume engineering and build shops in the world
  • At least one new invention filed with the U.S. Government every three days
  • The finest CNC, lith, machining, sintering, stereolith, shop equipment
  • Multiple government contracts engaged at all times
  • The greatest showcase of bleeding edge prototypes for manufacturing partnerships
  • Faster and better G&A than any larger competitor
  • A record-breaking volume of patents, fully operational pre-volume units and engineering plans

CONTACT US to inquire about co-sponsoring an Innovation Factory Redux

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SHOP SHOTS FROM SOME OF SCOTT'S SHOP SPACES:

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HELP POWER A TEAM OF THE BEST AND THE BRIGHTEST CREATORS IN THE WORLD:

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INFO: How Scott's Innovation Teams Work

Want to See Scott Operates his Team? This Article Provides a Great Overview:

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THE INNOVATION DREAM TEAM: OPPOSITES SUCCEED

Jeanne M. Liedtka and Randy Salzman 

As an increasingly popular approach to business innovation, the crux of design thinking is that it embraces both creativity and analytical thinking to solve problems; two sides of the design thinking coin, both are essential to the design thinking process.

As such, one key to design thinking is for designers to empathize with those who see the world through what Stanford psychologist Carol Dweck calls a “fixed mindset” — many of whom may be corporate or bureaucratic managers — and vice versa. Having learned at an early age that “life’s a test, try not to look stupid,” the fixed mindseter (whom we call “George”) usually digs deeply into a specialty and masters the intricacies of it, while designer-types, who usually enjoy what Dweck calls a “growth mindset,” see life as a journey of discovery and, therefore, have developed a more diverse repertoire.

A Potential Dream Team

There is a natural tension between these two mindsets, as one usually sticks to the same silo, mastering details and becoming reticent about disruptive change, and the other (whom we call “Geoffrey”) bounces in and out of silos, easily bored with those same intricacies and excited by the weird and the new. Like an exhilarating relationship, the smart Geoffrey and smart George become the “opposites who attract,” instead of the antithetical couples who get bogged down in their differences. Keeping the “creative types” and the “numbers people” on the same wavelength produces great ideas firmly anchored in the real world because Geoffreys have the propensity to embrace innovative ideas and Georges have the wisdom to devise tests for managing — not avoiding — any risks associated with Geoffreys’ imagined futures.

Geoffrey’s Turf vs. George’s Turf

The Geoffrey personality dominates in what we call the front end of design thinking, the What is and What if questions, and George’s natural home turf is in the back end, What wows and What works. If George withholds his natural skepticism until several of Geoffrey’s ideas are napkin pitched (when the organizational case for any new idea begins analysis), he is crucial for not allowing pie-in-the-sky ideas to overcome steely-eyed reality thinking. Too often, upper management can be easily awed by creative types and forget that the Geoffreys of the world, highly invested in their “brilliant” ideas, can become blind to any potential flaws. Identifying promising ideas is Geoffrey’s turf; ensuring that the promise is real is George’s.

Together, this is a formidable team. Opposed, this is no team at all. And design thinking, as practiced in the four-question, 15-step model, provides tools and methods for drawing the best of both personalities — whether that personality is literally two separate individuals or two aspects of the same human. One powerful tool is the methodology itself: When a George feels insecure during divergent “If anything were possible” thinking, he is still reassured he’s following a proven methodology and placated by checking off another box in that methodology. Other times, when the team needs to coalesce around design criteria, or assumption testing, or even very early in the process when teams decide whether design thinking is a solid approach for addressing their challenges, George’s attention to detail provides the foundation for Geoffrey’s creative thought.

Empathy Is Essential

Most design thinkers are Geoffreys and, like all humans, can face difficulty understanding others with different worldviews or mindsets. What seems simplicity itself to that Geoffrey personality might seem ridiculous to a George who may — because of his world view — rarely stick his hand up and chance being perceived stupid. The four-question methodology has Geoffreys all but begging Georges to expose flaws — at the right time and place, which is after What if creativity and before the expenditure of major dollars and resources when an organization pilots any new future.

A successful design thinker can use George and Geoffrey cooperation to truly empathize — different than sympathize or judge — with George. George is not stupid, or evil, or a “bean counter” who needs enlightened compassion, he’s rather essential to success because he helps Geoffrey recognize, and address, assumptions. He digs out the details that trip up even the best of ideas, and he does so after the ideas develop but while there is still time to solve those issues, not after Geoffrey has convinced the boss to turn over the checkbook — putting, of course, everyone’s necks on the line.

Jeanne M. Liedtka and Randy Salzman are authors of the upcoming book Design Thinking for the Greater Good: Innovation in the Social Sector (Columbia Business Press), a study of design-led innovation projects in government and social sectors.

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ENERGY: FUEL CELL ENERGY SYSTEMS

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Energy Storage

The energy density of even today’s most extreme batteries is less than that of our  technology. In other words: there is no other battery solution on the market today that can beat the patented system energy density capability and features. Our systems can deploy end-to-end, zero-GHG, clean, SAFE, energy paths without the use of “dirty power” sources. Our automotive technology eliminates the need to get stuck sitting around in “out-in-the-sticks” towns, staring at the ground, waiting for your car to charge.

SUSTAINABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION AND STORAGE

CONGRESSIONAL AND INDUSTRY COMMENDATIONS SEMINAL PATENTS GRANT WINNER FULLY OPERATIONAL UNITS BUILT MAKES ENERGY FROM WATER EFFICIENTLY STORES MORE ENERGY, FOR LONGER RANGE USAGE, WITH LEAST TOXIC CYCLING   [vimeo 125658624 w=425 h=350]
Our patented technology scales to any size to provide the best power solutions for: – Portable Power– Electronics, Emergency, Mobile – Vehicle Power– EV, CNG, Hybrid, RV, Tactical – Stationary Power– Community, Field Unit, Back-up, Remote Housing
 
Why Is This Better?: – Longer Vehicle Range Than Any Other Solution. – Longer Electronic Device Operation Than Any Other Solution. – Less Carcinogenic Than Any Other Solution. – Faster Recharge Than Any Other Solution. – Provides Greater National Security Than Any Other Solution. – Easier To Produce And Manufacture Domestically Than Any Other Solution. – Reduces The Weight, Decreases The Cost And Increases The Range Of EV’s Better Than Any Other Solution. – More Worldwide Recharge/Refuel Locations Than Any Other Solution. – Eliminates The Need For Extension Cords More Than Any Other Solution. – Able To Produce More Power From A Clean Grid Than Any Other Solution. – Easier To Glass-Encapsulate, To Avoid Accidents, Than Any Other Solution. – Better Able To Load-Balance Energy Demands Than Any Other Solution. – Least Toxic Fuel Than Any Other Solution. – Better Able To Provide Power From Within National Borders Than Any Other Solution. – Exceeds The Metrics Of All Competing Energy Solutions. – Our Patents Cover Over 3000 Energy Storage Chemistries.Tested globally in thousands of test deployments, millions of miles of auto use and in space.We license and design portable power, electric vehicle power and range extenders. We are a developer of clean, green, safe, recyclable energy solutions. We hold one of the premiere patent portfolios for in-house engineered energy storage. We are an expert in time-shifted energy deployment.Who else thinks this is a great solution? These folks, from both parties, for a start:

 

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Clean, mobile, long-lasting, local power.

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 The US Department of Energy has released its final report that collected data from more than 180 fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) over a six year period from 2005–2011. Within this period the vehicles made more than 500,000 trips and travelled more than 3.6 million miles, impleting more than 33,000 fill-ups at refuelling stations across the USA. The project found that these vehicles achieved more than twice the efficiency of today’s gasoline vehicles with refuelling times of five minutes average. The report comes as the world’s major automakers prepare to commercially deploy FCEV from as early as next year and is a positive reminder of the benefits the technology can offer.Our technology includes patent-protected glass-encapsulation technology which prevents solvents and moisture from degrading the energy storage materials.A leader in innovation and the delivering of the key solution for reducing dependence on foreign oil; Our engineers are the inventors of patented hot-swap transportable energy storage, the Fuel Cassettes®; Endless-EV™ range-extenders, electric vehicle power plants, and gas station-pumpable encapsulation bead storage compounds.We deploy proprietary solar, inductive, wind, fuel cell and battery hybridization which are technologies that have been proven for decades by NASA, the Department of Defense, the aerospace industry, Federal energy agencies and in universities around the world.The Energy Station™ and the Fuel Dock+ provide a single, highly scalable architecture, that can deliver power resources for: homes, offices, special events, hosting centers, portable soldier power, rack-mount markets, cell tower back-up, home power, forklift power, portable generators, boating power, camping power, portable electronics, aircraft power, neighborhood power, co-generation power, solar panel intermittency elimination, wind intermittency elimination, and back-up power.Winner: Congressional commendation & federal grant award. Awardee: Multiple issued U.S. patents. We hold patents on all core technology disclosed on this website.Be prepared for any disaster with our power technology.


Hyundai’ says: “…simply more efficient than batteries”
“Those looking to spice up a dinner party should seat John Krafcik and Carlos Ghosn next to each other should they get the opportunity. Krafcik, who runs North American operations for Hyundai, recently appeared to take a poker to the concept of battery-electric vehicles, which have long been espoused by Nissan-Renault chief Ghosn, and pushed his weight behind hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles. Krafcik, in an interview with Plug In Cars, noted that most EVs have to carry around about a half-ton of batteries, whether fully charged or tapped out. Additionally, batteries lose about one percent of their capacity each day they’re not used, while recharging them from anything other than a quick charger takes far longer than refilling a fuel-cell vehicle with hydrogen. Krafcik said this all points to what he called “so much inherent waste and inefficiency” in battery electric vehicles.
 
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the UCAR/NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the National Center for Atmospheric Research say:
“We engaged in a comprehensive analysis using global modeling methods that looks at relationships between deaths and exposure to particulate matter and ozone: air pollutants indirectly influenced by climate change. They found that 500,000 premature deaths could be avoided by the year 2030, of which two-thirds would be in China. By 2050, 800,000 to 1.8 million premature deaths could be avoided. Reductions in premature deaths from particulate air pollution (CPD plus lung cancer) and ozone (respiratory) in 2030 and 2050 (deaths per year per 1,000 km). Petrochemicals cause cancer. Actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and contact with petroleum reduce air pollutants, bringing co-benefits for air quality and human health and overall reduction in Cancer. Previous studies of this sort of thing typically looked at near-term and local benefits, neglecting the long-range transport of air pollutants, long-term changes in populations and the effects of climate change on air quality”  So the next time someone tells you fossil fuels are cheaper, remind them that there’s a lot more to it than the price at the pump.”

Proof of Technology
Here are many examples of the technology in use commercially:
 
Where can you see our technology at work?:Clean, green, bountiful, non-carcinogenic, efficient, long-range energy is something the “other guys” can’t compete with. History and scientific fact has now proven that our solid-state chemical energy systems were (as predicted), and are, the best bet for national energy independence for each country, dependable long range vehicle systems, aerospace technologies, retail long-duration power and many other needs. You can find third parties selling our technology in major retail stores, government supply shops and OEM builds around the world.NASA, global drone programs, major electronics groups, boating companies, tactical teams, aerospace leaders, national governments and hundreds of companies around the world demand the technology for their energy solution. Millions of miles without incident on land, sea, air and in space. Here is a very small sample of the technology, fully functional, shipping globally by partners, clients and duplicators:
An extensive set of hundreds of additional in-use referrals is now available…
Why Does Elon Musk go out of his way to sabotage this technology? Read this: Countering_the_anti-hydrogen_trolls_and_shills_1-21.pdf

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ENERGY: A Top Solution For Clean Energy Vehicles

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For Hybrids, Fuel Cell Direct, EV Battery Range Extension, Off-grid charging. Our technology is a hot-swap-capable, unlimited range energy systems which can be fuelled anywhere. With the market crashes and changing economic  conditions, less people have homes and more people have apartments. Generally, you can't plug an electric car in at an apartment or leave extensions cords trailing across the side-walk. Our technology eliminates the need for extension cords. Our technology allows you to take fuel for a drive across the U.S. in a high-range electric car in one load. Forget about extension cords for your electric car. Charge in apartments, hotels, offices and at home. Medium size Fuel Cassettes™ have a pop-out roller wheel and a slide-up handle so you can just wheel them from car-to-home, car-to-office or device-to-plug in any office building, apartment complex, hotel or other location. The market has spoken loud and clear. It is now proven that consumers are totally unwilling to buy an electric car they have to wait 5, 10, or up to 80 minutes, to refuel. Period. With Lim-Pac technology the wait is less than 50 SECONDS! Lim-Pac predicted this pain-point in the market over a decade ago; and solved it!
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Hydrogen fuel-cell cars look to overtake electric autos - CNN.com By Vanessa Ko , for CNNCNN.com (CNN) -- As electric cars try to forge more than just a niche in the market, the auto industry is already looking to another form of clean technology that could overtake today's battery-powered vehicles.Commitments by automobile manufactures to develop hydrogen fuel-cell cars have surged in recent months. Toyota, Hyundai, Daimler and Honda announced plans to build vehicles that run on the most abundant element in the universe and emit only water vapor as a byproduct."A lot of auto makers believe the fuel-cell vehicle is just a better performing vehicle and just makes more sense," said Kevin See, a senior analyst of electric vehicles at Lux Research in Boston. A fuel-cell-powered car can travel much longer distances than battery-powered ones before needing to be refueled, and fuel cells can be more readily used in large vehicles like trucks and SUVs. Hyundai has annouced that it will offer a fuel-cell version of its ix35 sport utility vehicle (known as the Tucson in the U.S.) on lease by the end of this year. It plans to make up to 1,000 fuel-cell cars by 2015 and thereafter 10,000 fuel-cell cars per year.  © Cable News Network. Turner Broadcasting System, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
General Motors, once a very public leader in the move to develop hydrogen fuel cells for transportation use, has been pretty quiet on the subject for the past decade.Recently though, GM announced a joint venture with Honda to build a fuel cell manufacturing plant, and, with the U.S. Army, has begun testing a military vehicle, the ZH2, that’s based on a heavily modified, fuel cell powered Chevrolet Colorado midsize pickup. GM has invested at least $2.5 billion in the technology in just the past two decades. Charles Freese, GM’s global head of fuel cell development, sat down with Trucks.com recently to discuss the automaker’s approach — he calls it a land-sea-air technology — and what the future might hold for fuel cells. Here is an edited version of the conversation: You’ve developed the Chevrolet ZH2 military fuel cell truck, but you don’t have a civilian vehicle. Why? We haven’t announced a vehicle program yet, but we have announced that we are building the plant to build the propulsion systems that will be used by vehicles from both Honda and GM. The ZH2 program is an opportunity to get synergy from something both we and the military are interested in.

Chevrolet Colorado ZH2. (Photo: Ryan ZumMallen/Trucks.com)

We wanted with the ZH2 to evaluate how the technology performs in a true off-road vehicle, a pickup truck with extreme capabilities, and we’re trying to leverage what fuel cells offer that other technologies are not as well-equipped to offer. We have a big vehicle with 300-400 miles of range, and we can also offer twice the efficiency of an internal combustion engine with all the torque needed for four-wheel drive and rock-crawling. We’ve got approach and departure angles that are better than a Humvee. Such as? We had people up on hillside one night, waiting for the ZH2 so they could take pictures of it, and they couldn’t hear it coming. That ability to have stealthy operation and a low thermal signature, which we deliver with a fuel cell electric drive system, is very desirable for the military. They don’t want to be detected. And then add to that the ability to export 25 to 50 kiloWatts of power [from the fuel cell], which could run a field hospital, or a laser targeting system, even a high-energy weapon. And you don’t need a big Humvee towing a diesel generator, which is bulky and very noisy. And then the fuel cell produces water, which is very valuable in battlefield conditions. And hydrogen is just a way to store energy, so you can make it from whatever is in the field, from wind, solar, jet fuel, natural gas, any petroleum source.

2017 Honda Clarity Fuel Cell - Is This Car From the Future ...

See why the hydrogen-powered, zero emission Clarity Fuel Cell is the most technologically advanced vehicle Honda's ever made. Learn more at http ...
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E71uUm6wgeY

Toyota's Mirai Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle To Hit Streets ...

Toyota's "car of the future" Comment; Share; ... is the company's new fuel cell vehicle that can travel hundreds of miles on one tank of hydrogen , ...
 
 
 

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INFO: Our Top In-House Skills List

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DESIGN: LUMIASCAPES LARGE AREA AND EDIFICE ELECTRO-OPTICAL DISPLAYS

Our Team can deliver an incredible illumination event for millions of viewers. We produced the very first one!

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Our Team created the first and largest outdoor electro-optical disaplays ever produced in a major urban environment!

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ENERGY: Cost of Fuel Cell Storage Powder Just Dropped Geometrically

fuelcell engine 7.jpgOur patented technology can help bring this opporetunity to market

Cost of Fuel Cells and Fuel Cell Fuel Storage Powder Just Dropped Geometrically Say Hello To Nanoparticle Catalysts by David L. Chandler A sample of a core-shell nanoparticle made by the researchers is shown in images made using scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Color images show where the different elements are …moreMaterials that speed up a chemical reaction without getting consumed in the process, known as catalysts, lie at the heart of many technologies, from vehicle emissions-control systems to high-tech devices such as fuel cells and electrolyzers. Unfortunately, catalysts are often pricey because they typically contain one or more noble metals, such as platinum or palladium, whose supplies are limited. Now, researchers at MIT have found a potential end-run around this limitation: a way to get the same amount of catalytic activity with as little as one-tenth the amount of precious metal. The key is to use an atomically-thin coating of noble metal over a tiny particle made of a much more abundant and inexpensive material: a kind of ceramic called transition metal carbide. While this idea has been the subject of extensive research, nobody had been able to find a way to get the coating to adhere to the underlying material, until now. And as a bonus, the coated particles actually outperform conventional catalysts (made completely of noble metal nanoparticles), providing greater longevity and better resistance to many unwanted phenomena that plague traditional noble metal catalysts. The new finding is being reported this week in the journal Science, in a paper by MIT doctoral student Sean Hunt, postdocs Maria Milina and Christopher Hendon, and Associate Professor Yuriy Román-Leshkov of the Department of Chemical Engineering. Since only the surface of catalytic particles is involved in accelerating a reaction, substituting the bulk of the particle with an inexpensive core can lead to drastic reductions in noble metal use without sacrificing performance. "For a long time, many researchers have been trying to find ways to make stable coatings of noble metals over earth-abundant cores," Román-Leshkov says. "There has been some success using metallic cores like nickel and cobalt, but the particles are not stable over long periods of time and end up alloying with the noble metal shell." Carbides, on the other hand, are resistant to corrosion and clustering, and also cannot alloy with noble metals, making them ideal core candidates. But noble metals – which get their name from their general reluctance to take part in any kind of chemical activity – don't easily bond with other materials, so producing coatings from them has been an elusive goal. At the same time, transition metal carbides are extremely difficult to engineer into nanoparticles with controlled properties. This is because they need high temperatures to force carbon into the metal lattice, which leads to particle clumping and surfaces contaminated with excess carbon layers. A simulation of the core-shell structure shows the arrangement of the different elements as they have separated themselves into the two regions.The key breakthrough, Hunt says, was to encapsulate the shell and core material precursors into a template made from silica. "This keeps them close together during the heat treatment, making them self-assemble into core-shell structures, conveniently solving both challenges at the same time," he says. The silica template could then be dissolved away using a simple room-temperature acidic treatment. In addition to greatly reducing the amount of precious metal required, the process turned out to have other important benefits as well. "We found that the self-assembly process is very general," says Hunt. "The reluctance of noble metals to bind to other materials means we could self-assemble incredibly complex catalytic designs with multiple precious metal elements present in the shell and multiple inexpensive elements present in the carbide core." This allowed the researchers to fine-tune the properties of the catalysts for different applications. For instance, using a nanoparticle with a platinum and ruthenium shell coating a carbide core made of tungsten and titanium, they designed a highly active and stable catalyst for possible applications in direct methanol fuel cells. After the catalyst was put through 10,000 electrochemical cycles, the new design still performed 10 times better than conventional nanoparticles after similar cycling. Yet another gain is that these nanoparticles are highly resistant to a problem that can plague other forms of noble-metal catalysts: "poisoning" of the surface by carbon monoxide. "This molecule can drastically curtail the performance of conventional catalysts by bonding to their surface and blocking further interaction, but on the core-shell catalysts, the carbon monoxide detaches more easily," Román-Leshkov says. While traditional hydrogen fuel cell catalysts can only tolerate 10 parts per million (ppm) of carbon monoxide, the researchers found that their core-shell catalysts could tolerate up to 1,000 ppm. Lastly, the researchers found that the core-shell structure was stable at high temperatures under various types of reaction conditions, while also remaining resistant to particle clumping. "Whereas in other classes of core-shell nanoparticles the shell dissolves into the core over time, noble metal shells are insoluble in carbide cores," says Hunt. "This is just another one of the many benefits that ceramic cores can have in designing active and stable catalysts." Although work for the translation of the new concept into a commercializable form is still preliminary, in principle it could make a big difference to applications such as fuel cells, where "it would overcome one of the main limitations that fuel cells are facing right now," Román-Leshkov says, namely the cost and availability of the needed precious metals. In fact, with the assistance of MIT's Translational Fellows Program, Milina has been focusing on the commercial aspects of the technology, identifying the potential market, value, and customers for these novel materials. "This is an important discovery regarding the potential applications of core-shell carbide particles coated with precious metal layers," says Jingguang Chen, a professor of chemical engineering at Columbia University, who was not involved in this work. "It would significantly reduce the amount of precious metals needed, and it could show better catalytic performance due to the synergistic interactions between the precious metal coating and the carbide core," he says. "Even though these advantages were predicted from previous studies of thin-film model systems, the current study demonstrates the feasibility of potential commercial applications using core shell structures." Explore further: A novel nanobio catalyst for biofuels More information: S. T. Hunt et al. Self-assembly of noble metal monolayers on transition metal carbide nanoparticle catalysts, Science (2016). DOI: 10.1126/science.aad8471 Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2016-05-nanoparticle-catalysts-precious-metals.html#jCp

READ MORE ON FUEL CELLS: >>> Countering_the_anti-hydrogen_trolls_and_shills_1-21.pdf

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TELECOM: Peer-to-peer internet makes every phone, gamebox, and anything with an antenna become an entire cell phone company.

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Peer-to-peer internet makes every phone, gamebox, and anything with an antenna become an entire cell phone company.

The international public internet group (IPIG) http://p2p-internet.weebly.com wants developers to know that internet is free, unlimited and you can reach it anywhere on Earth. Finding a cell phone tower or cable box is not required in order to reach the web.

The cell phone and cable companies spend billions of dollars trying to keep you from finding out about this. They will not be able to profiteer off you if you find out a basic service is actually available to everyone, for free.

Peer-to-Peer Internet and “Neighbor-Networked Web” just made ISP's obsolete overnight

FREE UNLIMITED INTERNET FROM PUBLIC P2P MESH NETWORKS IS HERE, NOW!

Per The P2P Alliances at http://p2p-internet.weebly.com

NYC Mesh is trying to get around the big ISPs — one node at a time. Between them and the Red Hook Initiative, here's the state of mesh networks in Brooklyn.

Brian Hall gets on his laptop and types “ev.mesh/” in the address bar. A splash page opens. “This is the Mesh. This is not the internet.”

From this page, Hall chats with other people connected to “the Mesh.” Soon, he hopes to create a social network, where people will find local events and special deals advertised by local businesses. Maybe they’ll even be able to access Netflix, Hall said, admitting that this last wish is “just a wacky idea for the future.”

Brian Hall is a member of NYC Mesh, an organization that tries to build a decentralized network of devices, or “nodes,” which are connected between them. This network is called “the Mesh,” or meshnet, and is independent from the internet: If the internet is down, people who have access to a node can still be connected to each other. And unlike the internet, access to a mesh network is free, once you’ve bought the hardware to set up the network.

The goal of NYC Mesh is to connect all New Yorkers, provide free internet and “be an alternative to Time Warner,” Hall said.

Eight people faced their computers in a room on 3rd Avenue in Brooklyn, during one of NYC Mesh’s recent meetings. In Spain, a meshnet group, Guifi.net, managed to create a 20,000-node network, Hall said — actually the network has close to 30,000 nodes, according to Guifi’s website. One person at the table asked how many NYC Mesh nodes exist. “About 17, I think,” Hall answered with a smile, as he looked down on the table.

The Community-Owned ISPs Building an Alternative to Big Telecom in New York City

Written by Jason Koebler Staff Writer

If you want high speed internet in most any spot in New York City, you’re stuck with Time Warner Cable. Or at least, that’s how it usually works. But increasingly around the city, citizens and small community groups are setting up their own locally owned and operated free wifi networks.

This week on Radio Motherboard, we take a trip to a meetup where two nascent but potentially disruptive groups were discussing how to collaborate in order to provide new connection options to people around the city. Since 2012, the nonprofit Red Hook Wifi network has been providing totally free internet to people in the small Brooklyn neighborhood. For weeks after Hurricane Sandy struck the neighborhood, the Red Hook Wifi network was the only way many in the community could get on the internet or make phone calls. On any given day, Red Hook Wifi has about 500 users.

Meanwhile, NYC Mesh is little more than a meetup group at the moment, but its organizers have big plans. Its network currently has about 40 “nodes,” or routers that connect to each other to form a larger wireless network. Organizer Brian Hall is currently working to set up two “super nodes” that are jacked into a large internet exchange will allow anyone in lower Manhattan and large swaths of Brooklyn to bypass traditional internet service providers and connect directly to the NYC Mesh network.

Finally, a brand new fiber project is about to give the masses a new option, at least when they’re out on the streets of New York. Link NYC is a $200 million project to replace 7,500 payphones in the city with a free, gigabit fiber-connected wifi hotspot. We took a trip to Link NYC’s headquarters to check out the new “links” and learn about how the project hopes to protect privacy, become a profitable enterprise, and provide connections that people will actually want to use.

Topics: Radio Motherboard, podcasts, new york city, Red Hook Wifi, Broadband competition, Municipal Networks, NYC Mesh, mesh networks

The challenge is to scale up to a size where it becomes a reliable internet source,” Hall said.

Programmers and people with a tech background “all get the idea immediately,” Hall said. They like the idea of having a community-run network that doesn’t need the big internet providers. But it’s hard to sustain without getting more people onboard. “The average person is just looking for internet, really,” Hall said. “Non-technical people just want to watch Netflix so it’s hard to explain to them.”

Free internet might be a selling point for Hall. If one node has access to the internet, it can provide internet to the other nodes of the mesh network for free.

That echoes the project another Brooklyn-based organization is also currently developing.

Building a free internet network that bypasses the big providers was on the mind of workers at Red Hook Initiative (RHI) for a while, but “Hurricane Sandy kind of pushed the development,” said Robert Smith, the assistant administrator for RHI’s free WiFi project. During Hurricane Sandy, the internet was down, and RHI started to set up internet access points so people could get information and contact their families, Smith said.

FOR TECHNICAL DETAILS ON ONE SOLUTION SEE:

http://www.tranzeo.com/products/docs/EnRoute500-Mesh-sample-design-report.pdf

RHI pays its internet subscription to Brooklyn Fiber, and redistributes this coverage for free to a dozen parts of Red Hook. “We still have a lot of work to do,” Smith said. There are 13 routers operating now, and Smith said he thinks they need about 40 to 50 to cover the entire neighborhood.

Back in the 3rd Avenue room, Brian Hall said he’s planning to offer similar services via NYC Mesh. As his organization installs more nodes, he hopes to connect network with others in New York City, including the one RHI has set up. Before his meshnet reaches Red Hook, though, Hall will have to convince a lot of Netflix lovers to set up a node.

ALSO SEE:

http://stopthecap.com/tag/antennas/

http://motherboard.vice.com/en_uk/read/how-a-diy-network-plans-to-subvert-time-warner-cables-nyc-internet-monopoly

Gregoire Molle is a recent graduate of the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism who has covered Brooklyn for The Brooklyn Ink. The native of France is a former radio intern for Parisian radio station Vivre FM, where he reported and produced daily stories for its news show.

Profile   /   @GregoireMolle  

The internet may feel free, but it certainly isn't. The only way for most people to get it is through a giant corporation like Comcast or Time Warner Cable, companies that choke your access and charge exorbitant prices.

In New York City, a group of activists and volunteers called NYC Mesh are trying to take back the internet. They're building something called a mesh network — a makeshift system that provides internet access. Their goal is to make TWC totally irrelevant.

How it works: Mesh networks start with one internet connection, which broadcasts that connection to another router and then jumps from router to router until it builds a whole web of "nodes." Each node is its own access point where you can log onto the internet like any other Wi-Fi connection.

In New York, NYC Mesh has about 40 of these nodes installed, and for the cost of the router (about $30), volunteers will come by and climb trees or rooftops to wire up a new node for anyone who wants to host one.

Mesh networks aren't just a makeshift version of a mainstream internet provider — they're an opportunity to create something more free and resilient. Mesh networks like the one in Red Hook, Brooklyn, are built so that if Time Warner broadband goes down in the area, mesh users still have internet access. What mesh networks need are new nodes that can daisy-chain out to existing nodes to reach places where traditional Wi-Fi hasn't gotten to. And in some parts of the world, this is already happening.

A global revolution: Mesh networks caught fire during Hong Kong's Umbrella Revolution, a student-led protest movement in 2014. During the protests, the open internet wasn't safe: Chinese government was deleting mentions of the sit-ins online, wiping posts from Chinese sites and blacking out CNN's news coverage of the movement. 

So the protesters used an app called Firechat, which turns every phone into a node by linking them all together over Wi-Fi and Bluetooth to communicate. Tens of thousands of protesters at a time were organizing anonymously, without the use of an established cellular network where they could face censorship.

Mesh networks aren't just used for subverting government censors and telecom giants. They can also bring the internet to those who don't have a national broadband infrastructure.

To bring the internet to Spanish farmland and blow past telecommunications giant Telefónica, a Spanish NGO created guifi.net, the world's largest mesh network with over 30,000 nodes. In Germany, the Freifunk initiative helps people create free local networks where there are few public Wi-Fi access points.

If a storm or flood wipes out existing cable infrastructure, or knocks out the broadband in an area, a mesh network of rooftop nodes and home routers could bounce the signal along through the air, unhindered.

Guifi

The people's provider: NYC Mesh has the potential to be the internet provider of the people, but there's one problem: If you trace back the internet connections through the nodes to their root, you'll eventually reach the source of the network, which is — guess what — a Time Warner Cable connection.

"Everyone seems to hate Time Warner; that's the thing that unifies the city," NYC Mesh organizer Brian Hall told Motherboard. "It's going to be a while before we replace Time Warner, but there's some hope of it happening."

 

FREE UN-CAPPED, UN-THROTTLED, ULTRA-HIGH-SPEED INTERNET WITHOUT CENSORING HAS ARRIVED AND THERE IS NO POSSIBLE WAY TO STOP IT

The founder of Aereo is promising to bring gigabit internet to every home

At a launch event in New York City today, Chaitanya "Chet" Kanojia, the founder of the now-deceased startup Aereo, launched an ambitious new wireless hub called Starry. Starry is supposed to offer gigabit internet to the home, but delivered over a wireless network rather than a traditional wired one. The technology was built by the same antenna experts who made Aereo, and may run into its own regulatory troubles as it attempts to leverage unlicensed bands of spectrum.

"It’s a little bit like witchcraft."

Like Aereo, Starry is a questionably ambitious idea. Kanojia wants to deliver extremely high-speed internet over the air using millimeter waves, which don't travel very far and aren't very good at penetrating obstacles — not even water in the air. That means Starry will have a lot of technical hurdles to overcome. The company is only presenting a sleek wireless hub at its event today, but it seems like more hardware — perhaps something outside the home — will be needed to fully connect to Starry's gigabit wireless network. It also means that Starry will need to set up broadcast points in very close proximity to its customers or use some sort of mesh technology to improve its reach. Doing that would likely make it harder for Starry to reach its goal of gigabit speeds. So, to be very clear, there's a lot to be skeptical about here.

Starry hasn't provided details on how it'll get around the many technical limitations in its way. "What are millimeter waves you ask? It’s a little bit like witchcraft," Kanojia says. The company keeps repeating a dense list of technologies — OFDM modulation, MU-MIMO, active phased array — which apparently add up to a solution. Kanojia acknowledges that no one has attempted internet delivery over millimeter waves before because it's difficult to get a connection from outside to inside of a house. But Starry has supposedly figured out a way to "steer" the signal using a bank of tiny antennas that increase the connection's power and accuracy. "People historically assumed fiber was the answer at all times," Kanojia says. Starry's approach, he claims, is "the most meaningful, scalable architecture anyone has proposed to this point."

Kanojia says that he wanted to launch Starry to give consumers an option about how they get internet. Most people are stuck with only one choice of internet provider — two if they're lucky — and it's difficult for new competitors to enter the space. Laying wires is expensive, as is launching a more traditional wireless network, so Kanojia is once again in charge of a company taking an unconventional approach in an attempt to quickly enter and disrupt an established market.

The company's hub, called Starry Station, doubles as a Wi-Fi router that can be controlled through a small touchscreen. The Station is supposed to include a built-in "internet health monitoring system," which will break down how much bandwidth different devices are using throughout the home and can suggest creating new networks to better suit specific devices.

"Did he say what the solution was?"

Starry still has a lot to prove. "A phased array is the worst possible choice for millimeter wave antenna. It’s terrible. I don’t understand it. The feed structure is very lossy, and it’s not cost-effective compared to a reflector or lens antenna," says Spencer Webb, an antenna consultant and President of AntennaSys. "[Kanojia] said it’s hard to go from the outside to the inside, but did he say what the solution was? Millimeter wave won’t go through a window."

Starry will launch its service first in Boston, with its hub selling for $349.99. It hasn't said yet how much it'll cost to get internet service delivered to that hub, but it has said that there will be no contracts or data caps. Sales will start on February 5th, with deliveries beginning in March. Starry plans to launch in additional cities throughout the year.

 

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SopCast - Free P2P internet TV | live football, NBA, cricket

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SopCast is a simple, free way to broadcast video and audio or watch the video and listen to radio on the Internet. Adopting P2P(Peer-to-Peer) technology, It is very ...

http://sopcast.com/

FilesOverMiles - Send files direct to other users (P2P ...

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Your files are sent the shortest way - directly between the recipient and you. There are no intermediate servers slowing down the process. Try FilesOverMiles and send ...

http://www.filesovermiles.com/

Freenet

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wikidata

http://www.freenetproject.org

Peer to Peer: Das neue Internet | ZEIT ONLINE - Die Zeit

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Kein Problem: Wer seine Daten den umstrittenen Internet-Giganten nicht ... Office -Anwendung, Video- und Datentausch über P2P-Netzwerke.

http://www.zeit.de/zeit-wissen/2012/05/Das-alternative-Netz

PPTV

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wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PPTV

Peer-to-peer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Peer-to-peer (P2P) computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or work loads between peers. Peers are equally privileged ...

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peer-to-peer

Shareaza - Bringing P2P Together

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Shareaza is a peer-to-peer client for Windows that allows you to download any file-type found on several popular P2P networks. Shareaza is FREE & contains NO Spyware ...

http://shareaza.sourceforge.net/

Watch Football Online

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Watch Football Online. Football live streaming from England, Spain, Germany, Italy and France to your pc or mobile devices. It is free preview only.

http://asiaplatetv.com/

Ares - [Home] Download latest version 2.3.8

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AresGalaxy is a free Filesharing-Bittorrent p2p client connected to TCP supernode/leaf network and UDP DHT network. Ares features a built-in directshow media player ...

http://aresgalaxy.sourceforge.net/

Peer-to-Peer – Wikipedia

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Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Connection (von englisch peer „Gleichgestellter“, ... auf dem Internet realisiert werden, ist daher ein zweites internes Overlay-Netz, welches ...

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peer-to-Peer

Ares | Ares Download - P2P File Sharing Program |...

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Ares.net is the official Ares website of the ONLY working version of Ares – the revolutionary P2P file-sharing platform that lets you download unlimited free music ...

http://www.ares.net/

gulli.com - Internet - Filesharing - Grundwissen - P2P

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P2P steht eigentlich für Peer-to-Peer, also die Verbindung zwischen zwei Teilnehmern einer Tauschbörse. Gemeint ist hierbei also der direkte Austausch von ...

http://www.gulli.com/internet/filesharing/grundlagen/p2p

P2P/Winsock/Internet Programming VB.NET tutorial

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Welcome to the p2p.wrox.com Forums. You are currently viewing the VB.NET section of the Wrox Programmer to Programmer discussions. This is a community of tens of ...

http://p2p.wrox.com/vb-net/9681-p2p-wi[...]rogramming-vbulletin-net-tutorial.html

Internet2 Peer to Peer Working Group - P2P WG

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The Internet2 End-to-End Performance Initiative (E2Epi) is aimed at improving end-to-end performance in the network infrastructure by focusing resources and ...

http://p2p.internet2.edu/

The Pirate Bay founders are building a P2P internet | KitGuru

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6 Jan 2014 ... The Pirate Bay has been shaking up the internet for over a decade at this point, first by helping popularise torrents, then by its founders ...

 

http://www.kitguru.net/gaming/security[...]-bay-founders-building-a-p2p-internet/

How to setup and configure DVR Cloud P2P …

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Complete version of how to connect DVR to Internet and Android mobile and laptop or Internet Explorer settings from www.cctvcameraspy.com In this video we ...

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7dbRSZzFUzE

The Alternative P2P Wireless Internet Network: The Netsukuku Idea

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Would it be possible, using p2p and wireless technologies, to gain independence from internet providers and make free and open net ...

 

http://www.masternewmedia.org/the-alte[...]s-internet-network-the-netsukuku-idea/

P2P, Top-Downloads für Linux - Download - heise online

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Internet, Dateitransfer, P2P, 12 Programme für Linux bei heise Download.

 

http://www.heise.de/download/linux/internet/dateitransfer/p2p-50003505129/

Firechat Enables Private Off-The-Internet (P2P) - Disruptive Telephony

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In the text he outlines how they do decentralized "off-the-grid" private messaging using an ad hoc mesh network established between users of ...

http://www.disruptivetelephony.com/201[...]p2p-messaging-using-mobile-phones.html

Topics: Radio Motherboard, podcasts, new york city, Red Hook Wifi, Broadband competition, Municipal Networks, NYC Mesh, mesh networks , mesh networks, mesh internet, p2p internet

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ENERGY: TOP MODERN ENERGY SOLUTION

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THE TOP MODERN ENERGY SOLUTION IN THE WORLD!

Use solar, hydrogen, battery, petrol and other technologies in one system. This is your "forever energy solution". Award-winning, patented, Congressionally acclaimed, working energy solutions. Energy With Attitude TM The first company in the mobile fuel cell space. The originators of the mobile fuel cell power pack. "GREAT SCOTT!" TAKE A LOOK AT THIS VIDEO AND THEN CONTACT US TO SEE HOW TO MAKE YOUR FCV CAR FUEL, AT HOME, AND POWER YOUR CAR FOR TWO THOUSAND MILES WITHOUT HUNTING FOR A FUEL STATION: 

CLICK TO WATCH OR DOWNLOAD VIDEO >> : toyota fuel cell.mp4
 
OUR TECHNOLOGY NOW MATES TO, AND RANGE-EXTENDS, ANY HONDA, TOYOTA, FORD, BMW, HYUNDAI, KIA, MERCEDES, AND OTHER FUEL CELL VEHICLE, ANYWHERE IN THE WORLD! ADD THOUSANDS OF MILES OF RANGE AND NEVER HAVE TO WORRY ABOUT HUNTING FOR A FUEL STATION AGAIN!
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Is it clean and non-toxic? You can use solar, wind, bio-waste, geo-thermal, water and more, to generate free, or low cost, energy from domestic resources. Make your energy go farther, more safely, than any competing solution. 
 

 
THE LIM-PACTM POWER PACK BEATS EVERYTHING ON THE MARKET!  Organic-based battery, power source and fuel production in one system, scalable from pocket-size to freight-train size. In use, around the world, by NASA, all branches of the armed forces, the medical industry, camping industries and organizations in every country. Patented, Fuel Cell-based, Clean, Efficient, Non-toxic, Domestic sourced, Instant recharge, Sustainable, Non-explosive, Low Cost, Light-weight, Longer duration, Self-repairing, Longer-range; Power from Water, Solar and Organic Waste Materials.
  • Lasts longer than any other commercial battery.
  • Runs safer than any other commercial battery.
  • Gives you more range, in mobile, vehicle and transport systems, than any other commercial battery.
  • Can be recharged, or powered, by more sustainable sources, than any other commercial battery.
  • Can use more domestic resources than any other commercial battery.
Nothing on Earth can offer you these advantages:
  • One little cube can power your phone, your car, your house, your RV or your city!
  • Fuel storage and energy output in one little blue square.
  • Zero-issue about whether or not "it works": Featuring technology now in use, and proven by: NASA, The Pentagon, The Navy Seals, and the Olympics.
  • Fuelled by, either: water, and/or solar and/or or any organic material.
  • Stack them up for power, convenience and customization. Power the smallest, and the biggest, products that need power.
  • Safe, non-toxic, organic, sustainable, efficient, stackable, modular, clean, dependable, self repairing, mobile, easy, instant re-charge.
  • Best power-to-weight-to-factory cost ratio in the world.
  • You can make power at home, or pick up more fuel from millions of locations you can locate with a mobile App.
  • No carcinogenic fumes, like competing energy solutions.
  • Modular system fits every physical space foot-print.
  • No self-ignition, like competing solutions.
  • All materials available inside your own national borders so it does not create a national security threat, like other solutions.
  • Doubles the value of your existing wind, solar or geothermal power systems.
  • The waste material is just drinkable water; which can be recycled.
  • Tens of thousands of examples of the technology, now in use, via land, sea, air and space.
  • Can be easily manufactured at low cost with simple factory systems already on-line.
  • Protected by the top mobile energy patent suite of issued patents, and multiple pending patents, in this market, in the world.
- One Cube - Every Power Need  - Now featuring some of the most potent competitor protection in the world. Competitors spent over TWO BILLION dollars trying to halt this technology with lobbying, shills, "doubt articles" and nay-saying. Many of them failed, went out of business, and were indicted for misbehaviours. After all that, we are still around, they are failing, and we now have government support globally, and dramatically increasing demand for our technology. - Now seeking licensing and manufacturing partners. Over 100 factories now capable of contracting for your order. - Consumers: Contact your Best Buy, Radio Shack, REI, Target, Walmart, Safeway, Walgreens, Piggley Wiggly, Rite Aid, or other retailer, and ask them to place a manufacturing order, with us, for Lim-Pac's. We do not sell direct-to-consumer, but ask your local retailer to place an order with us, so you can conveniently buy Lim-Pac's in your neighbourhood . We are recipients of federal and industry commendations, federal grants, historical patents, federal contracts, and U.S. Congressional commendation in the Federal Register, for creating of this technology. Our system is an instant-swap/recharge battery that runs longer than almost any other battery, can use almost any one of over 3000 chemical configurations, leaves only drinkable water as it’s waste, needs no new infrastructure and can be created entirely from domestic materials. NO NEW INFRASTRUCTURE COSTS ARE REQUIRED. THE INFRASTRUCTURE FOR LIM-PAC IS ALREADY IN PLACE IN YOUR COUNTRY! DOUBLE THE RANGE OF YOUR ELECTRIC OR HYBRID VEHICLE. QUADRUPLE THE USE TIME OF YOUR DEVICE WITHOUT EXPOSING YOURSELF TO DANGEROUS TOXINS.  ENSURE YOUR DOMESTIC SECURITY!!!  ARE ALL THE SOURCES, OF YOUR OTHER ENERGY OPTIONS, NOW WAR-ZONES? BRING ENERGY HOME. USE LIM-PAC'S TO GET POWERED UP, WITHIN YOUR NATIONAL BORDERS. OVER 220 MILLION LOCATIONS TO RE-CHARGE YOUR LIM-PAC EXIST TODAY, INCLUDING YOUR HOME OR OFFICE! SEE SOME OF OUR ISSUED PATENTS. (CLICK HERE) Our patented technology scales to any size to provide the best power solutions for: - Portable Power- Electronics, Emergency, Mobile - Vehicle Power- EV, CNG, Hybrid, RV, Tactical - Stationary Power- Community, Field Unit, Back-up, Remote Housing Why Is This Better?: - Longer Vehicle Range Than Any Other Solution. - Longer Electronic Device Operation Than Any Other Solution. - Less Carcinogenic Than Any Other Solution. - Faster Recharge Than Any Other Solution. - Provides Greater National Security Than Any Other Solution. - Easier To Produce And Manufacture Domestically Than Any Other Solution. - Reduces The Weight, Decreases The Cost And Increases The Range Of EV's Better Than Any Other Solution. - More Worldwide Recharge/Refuel Locations Than Any Other Solution. - Eliminates The Need For Extension Cords More Than Any Other Solution. - Able To Produce More Power From A Clean Grid Than Any Other Solution. - Easier To Glass-Encapsulate, To Avoid Accidents, Than Any Other Solution. - Better Able To Load-Balance Energy Demands Than Any Other Solution. - Least Toxic Fuel Than Any Other Solution. - Better Able To Provide Power From Within National Borders Than Any Other Solution. - Exceeds The Metrics Of All Competing Energy Solutions. - Our Patents Cover Over 3000 Energy Storage Chemistries. - And Many More Reasons... Tested globally in thousands of test deployments, millions of miles of auto use and in space. We license and design portable power, electric vehicle power and range extenders. We are a developer of clean, green, safe, recyclable energy solutions. We hold one of the premier patent portfolios for in-house engineered energy storage. We are an expert in time-shifted energy deployment.
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Eliminates the extension cord. Featuring: The safest chemical energy storage, via our glass encapsulation technology, for over 3000+ different energy storage compounds Turn Toxic Coal Ashe into Clean Energy Storage material using our patented technology. Find out about our solution to turn waste "Powder into Power"! Ask us about licensing or partnering. 
 
 

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SUPPORTED BY THE U.S.CONGRESS, THE PUBLIC AND INDUSTRY -
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Clean, mobile, long-lasting, local power.

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The energy density of even today's most extreme batteries is less than that of our technology. In other words: there is no other battery solution on the market today that can beat the patented system energy density capability and features. Our systems can deploy end-to-end, zero-GHG, clean, SAFE, energy paths without the use of "dirty power" sources. Our automotive technology eliminates the need to get stuck sitting around in "out-in-the-sticks" towns, staring at the ground, waiting for your car to charge. The US Department of Energy has released its final report that collected data from more than 180 fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) over a six year period from 2005–2011. Within this period the vehicles made more than 500,000 trips and travelled more than 3.6 million miles, implementing more than 33,000 fill-ups at refuelling stations across the USA. The project found that these vehicles achieved more than twice the efficiency of today’s gasoline vehicles with refuelling times of five minutes average. The report comes as the world’s major auto-makers prepare to commercially deploy FCEV from as early as next year and is a positive reminder of the benefits the technology can offer. Our technology includes patent-protected glass-encapsulation technology which prevents solvents and moisture from degrading the energy storage materials. A leader in innovation and the delivering of the key solution for reducing dependence on foreign oil; Our engineers are the inventors of patented hot-swap transportable energy storage, the Fuel Cassettes®; Endless-EV™ range-extenders, electric vehicle power plants, and gas station-pumpable encapsulation bead storage compounds. We deploy proprietary solar, inductive, wind, fuel cell and battery hybridization which are technologies that have been proven for decades by NASA, the Department of Defense, the aerospace industry, Federal energy agencies and in universities around the world. Power resources for:  Homes, offices, special events, hosting centers, portable soldier power, rack-mount markets, cell tower back-up, home power, forklift power, portable generators, boating power, camping power, portable electronics, aircraft power, neighborhood power, co-generation power, solar panel intermittency elimination, wind intermittency elimination, and back-up power. Winner: Congressional commendation & federal grant award. Awardee: Multiple issued U.S. patents. We hold patents on all core technology disclosed on this website. Be prepared for any disaster with our power technology.

Why Does Elon Musk Spend So Much Time Sabotaging and Nay-Saying Hydrogen? Take A Look at This:
Countering_the_anti-hydrogen_trolls_and_shills_1-21.pdf

 

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TELECOM: DATA CENTER POWER ADVANTAGES OF THE FUEL CASSETTE

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ENERGY: Seawater Offers a Brand New Way to Produce Clean Energy

This works with our technology:

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Zain Charkawi
 
As the world starts to move away from using fossil fuels towards cleaner and greener forms of energy, there seems to be more and more alternatives arising from somewhat unlikely sources. For instance, scientists have just found a way to use seawater as a clean and renewable energy source. By utilizing sunlight, scientists have found that they can turn seawater into hydrogen peroxide (H202), a chemical compound that can then be used to generate electricity in fuel cells. One of the researchers responsible for this new study had this to say about their new find:
Opening quote
Utilization of solar energy as a primary energy source has been strongly demanded to reduce emissions of harmful and/or greenhouse gases produced by burning fossil fuels. However, large fluctuation of solar energy depending on the length of the daytime is a serious problem. To utilize solar energy in the night time, solar energy should be stored in the form of chemical energy and used as a fuel to produce electricity
Closing quote
Some may be asking why seawater? Couldn't freshwater work just as well? The answer to that is a firm "no," as gaseous hydrogen production from pure water has a lower solar energy conversion and turns out to be much more difficult to store and transport. For a comparison, one of the tests conducted showed that after 24 hrs, the H202 concentration in seawater reached 48 millimolar; the concentration in pure water only reached 2 millimolar. Researchers found that the negatively charged chlorine in the seawater was responsible for why seawater is such an effective method. The process works using something called a photocatalytic method, one of the first techniques to make H202 production a legitimate option, seeing as how other ways of making H202 requires a good deal of energy as well. This process takes a new photoelectrochemical cell developed to make H202 when the sun shines on the photocatalyst, which then takes in photons and begins certain chemical reactions, essentially creating H202. Though the researchers say they are currently planning to develop a way for low cost and large scale production of H202 of seawater, the process of creating energy still isn't quite as efficient as other methods of producing solar power. However, this is certainly another big step forward as the world moves away from fossil fuels and closer to greener energy sources.
Science
Technology
Science News
 

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ENERGY: Industry News Regarding Our Energy Technology

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ENERGY: Saving Billions of Dollars By Energy Time-Shifting With Our Technology

License Our Energy Technology And Accomplish These Savings...

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