A mesh network is a local networktopology in which the infrastructure nodes (i.e. bridges, switches and other infrastructure devices) connect directly, dynamically and non-hierarchically to as many other nodes as possible and cooperate with one another to efficiently route data from/to clients. Mesh networks dynamically self-organize and self-configure, which can reduce installation overhead. The ability to self-configure enables dynamic distribution of workloads, particularly in the event that a few nodes should fail. This in turn contributes to fault-tolerance and reduced maintenance costs.
Mesh topology may be contrasted with conventional star/tree local network topologies in which the bridges/switches are directly linked to only a small subset of other bridges/switches, and the links between these infrastructure neighbours are hierarchical. While star-and-tree topologies are very well established, highly standardized and vendor-neutral, vendors of mesh network devices have not yet all agreed on common standards, and interoperability between devices from different vendors is not yet assured.
A few of Scott's issued federal patents confirming him as "first-to-invent" in P2P Mesh include:
- Works anywhere
- No new infrastructure needed
- Can self-power and self-repair
- HD video has now been used across the system
- Saves billions of dollars in infrastructure costs
- Provides instant communications in a disaster zone
- Can operate with, or without, cell towers
- Very low cost
A few ways for you to try out the technology include:
How My Science Teams Can See Everything: The Laser Raman Spectroscopic Study Device
Want to know about every toxin in your home, food or air? Want to see what is in that beverage you are about to drink? You can look at any object and know what it is and what it is made of with our E-Glasses interface. You can tune your life like you tune your music. You can dial-out certain substances and dial-in others. Our trade secret and patent-pending protected technology is the i-Pod of personal science. While large systems in this field exist, there is nothing out there for "regular folks". As they say: "If you can't buy it at Walgreens or Rite Aid, who cares?..." The technology is 100% functional right now. Factory DFM and volume price-point reduction is the final challenge.
A new gadget we are working on will let you put a device in your pocket that can tell you about every substance you put inside your body. It uses solid state lasers and other interesting things. What is the science behind part of it? Let’s take a look:
Micro-Laser Raman Spectroscopy is a spectroscopic analysis technique used to observe vibrational, rotational, and other low-frequency modes in a system. Raman spectroscopy is commonly used in chemistry to provide a visual structure fingerprint by which molecules, and that which they make up, can be identified. It can see the particles that make up that which is around you by identifying their molucular components.
Typically, a sample is illuminated with a laser beam. Electromagnetic radiation from the illuminated spot is collected with a lens and sent through a monochromator. Elastic scattered radiation at the wavelength corresponding to the laser line (Rayleigh scattering) is filtered out by either a notch filter, edge pass filter, or a band pass filter, while the rest of the collected light is dispersed onto a detector.
The Raman effect occurs when electromagnetic radiation interacts with a solid, liquid, or gaseous molecule’s polarizable electron density and bonds. The spontaneous effect is a form of inelastic light scattering, where a photon excites the molecule in either the ground (lowest energy) or excited rovibronic state (a rotational and vibrational energy level within an electronic state). This excitation puts the molecule into a virtual energy state for a short time before the photon scatters inelastically. Inelastic scattering means that the scattered photon can be of either lower or higher energy than the incoming photon, compared to elastic, or Rayleigh, scattering where the scattered photon has the same energy as the incoming photon. After interacting with the photon, the molecule is in a different rotational or vibrational state. This change in energy between the initial and final rovibronic states causes the scattered photon's frequency to shift away from the excitation wavelength (that of the incoming photon), called the Rayleigh line.
For the total energy of the system to remain constant after the molecule moves to a new rovibronic state, the scattered photon shifts to a different energy, and therefore a different frequency. This energy difference is equal to that between the initial and final rovibronic states of the molecule. If the final state is higher in energy than the initial state, the scattered photon will be shifted to a lower frequency (lower energy) so that the total energy remains the same. This shift in frequency is called a Stokes shift, or downshift. If the final state is lower in energy, the scattered photon will be shifted to a higher frequency, which is called an anti-Stokes shift, or upshift.
For a molecule to exhibit a Raman effect, there must be a change in its electric dipole-electric dipole polarizability with respect to the vibrational coordinate corresponding to the rovibronic state. The intensity of the Raman scattering is proportional to this polarizability change. Therefore, the Raman spectrum, scattering intensity as a function of the frequency shifts, depends on the rovibronic states of the molecule.
The Raman effect is based on the interaction between the electron cloud of a sample and the external electrical field of the monochromatic light, which can create an induced dipole moment within the molecule based on its polarizability. Because the laser light does not excite the molecule there can be no real transition between energy levels. The Raman effect should not be confused with emission (fluorescence or phosphorescence), where a molecule in an excited electronic state emits a photon and returns to the ground electronic state, in many cases to a vibrationally excited state on the ground electronic state potential energy surface. Raman scattering also contrasts with infrared (IR) absorption, where the energy of the absorbed photon matches the difference in energy between the initial and final rovibronic states. The dependence of Raman on the electric dipole-electric dipole polarizability derivative also differs from IR spectroscopy, which depends on the electric dipole moment derivative, the atomic polar tensor (APT). This contrasting feature allows rovibronic transitions that might not be active in IR to be analyzed using Raman spectroscopy, as exemplified by the rule of mutual exclusion in centrosymmetric molecules. Transitions which have large Raman intensities often have weak IR intensities and vice versa. A third vibrational spectroscopy technique, inelastic incoherent neutron scattering (IINS), can be used to determine the frequencies of vibrations in highly symmetric molecules that may be both IR and Raman inactive. The IINS selection rules, or allowed transitions, differ from those of IR and Raman, so the three techniques are complementary. They all give the same frequency for a given vibrational transition, but the relative intensities provide different information due to the different types of interaction between the molecule and the incoming particles, photons for IR and Raman, and neutrons for IINS.
Although the inelastic scattering of light was predicted by Adolf Smekal in 1923, it was not observed in practice until 1928. The Raman effect was named after one of its discoverers, the Indian scientist Sir C. V. Raman, who observed the effect by means of sunlight (1928, together with K. S. Krishnan and independently by Grigory Landsberg and Leonid Mandelstam). Raman won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1930 for this discovery accomplished using sunlight, a narrow-band photographic filter to create monochromatic light, and a "crossed filter" to block this monochromatic light. He found that a small amount of light had changed frequency and passed through the "crossed" filter.
Systematic pioneering theory of the Raman effect was developed by Czechoslovak physicist George Placzek between 1930 and 1934. The mercury arc became the principal light source, first with photographic detection and then with spectrophotometric detection.
In the years following its discovery, Raman spectroscopy was used to provide the first catalog of molecular vibrational frequencies. Originally, heroic measures were required to obtain Raman spectra due to the low sensitivity of the technique. Typically, the sample was held in a long tube and illuminated along its length with a beam of filtered monochromatic light generated by a gas discharge lamp. The photons that were scattered by the sample were collected through an optical flat at the end of the tube. To maximize the sensitivity, the sample was highly concentrated (1 M or more) and relatively large volumes (5 mL or more) were used. Consequently, the use of Raman spectroscopy dwindled when commercial IRspectrophotometers became available in the 1940s. However, the advent of the laser in the 1960s resulted in simplified Raman spectroscopy instruments and also boosted the sensitivity of the technique. This has revived the use of Raman spectroscopy as a common analytical technique.
Raman shifts are typically reported in wavenumbers, which have units of inverse length, as this value is directly related to energy. In order to convert between spectral wavelength and wavenumbers of shift in the Raman spectrum.
Raman spectroscopy is used in chemistry to identify molecules and study chemical bonding. Because vibrational frequencies are specific to a molecule’s chemical bonds and symmetry (the fingerprint region of organic molecules is in the wavenumber range 500–1500 cm−1, Raman provides a fingerprint to identify molecules. For instance, Raman and IR spectra were used to determine the vibrational frequencies of SiO, Si2O2, and Si3O3 on the basis of normal coordinate analyses. Raman is also used to study the addition of a substrate to an enzyme.
In solid-state physics, Raman spectroscopy is used to characterize materials, measure temperature, and find the crystallographic orientation of a sample. As with single molecules, a solid material can be identified by characteristic phonon modes. Information on the population of a phonon mode is given by the ratio of the Stokes and anti-Stokes intensity of the spontaneous Raman signal. Raman spectroscopy can also be used to observe other low frequency excitations of a solid, such as plasmons, magnons, and superconducting gap excitations. Distributed temperature sensing (DTS) uses the Raman-shifted backscatter from laser pulses to determine the temperature along optical fibers. The orientation of an anisotropic crystal can be found from the polarization of Raman-scattered light with respect to the crystal and the polarization of the laser light, if the crystal structure’s point group is known.
In nanotechnology, a Raman microscope can be used to analyze nanowires to better understand their structures, and the radial breathing mode of carbon nanotubes is commonly used to evaluate their diameter.
Raman active fibers, such as aramid and carbon, have vibrational modes that show a shift in Raman frequency with applied stress. Polypropylene fibers exhibit similar shifts.
In solid state chemistry and the bio-pharmaceutical industry, Raman spectroscopy can be used to not only identify active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), but to identify their polymorphic forms, if more than one exist. For example, the drug Cayston (aztreonam), marketed by Gilead Sciences for cystic fibrosis, can be identified and characterized by IR and Raman spectroscopy. Using the correct polymorphic form in bio-pharmaceutical formulations is critical, since different forms have different physical properties, like solubility and melting point.
Raman spectroscopy has a wide variety of applications in biology and medicine. It has helped confirm the existence of low-frequency phonons in proteins and DNA, promoting studies of low-frequency collective motion in proteins and DNA and their biological functions. Raman reporter molecules with olefin or alkyne moieties are being developed for tissue imaging with SERS-labeled antibodies. Raman spectroscopy has also been used as a noninvasive technique for real-time, in situ biochemical characterization of wounds. Multivariate analysis of Raman spectra has enabled development of a quantitative measure for wound healing progress.Spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS), which is less sensitive to surface layers than conventional Raman, can be used to discover counterfeit drugs without opening their packaging, and to non-invasively study biological tissue. A huge reason why Raman spectroscopy is so useful in biological applications is because its results often do not face interference from water molecules, due to the fact that they have permanent dipole moments, and as a result, the Raman scattering cannot be picked up on. This is a large advantage, specifically in biological applications. Raman spectroscopy also has a wide usage for studying biominerals. Lastly, Raman gas analyzers have many practical applications, including real-time monitoring of anesthetic and respiratory gas mixtures during surgery.
Raman spectroscopy is an efficient and non-destructive way to investigate works of art. Identifying individual pigments in paintings and their degradation products provides insight into the working method of the artist. It also gives information about the original state of the painting in cases where the pigments degraded with age. In addition to paintings, Raman spectroscopy can be used to investigate the chemical composition of historical documents (such as the Book of Kells), which can provide insight about the social and economic conditions when they were created. It also offers a noninvasive way to determine the best method of preservation or conservation of such materials.
Raman spectroscopy has been used in several research projects as a means to detect explosives from a safe distance using laser beams. Airports and transit areas in NY City and Paris now use laser explosive detection.
Raman Spectroscopy is being further developed so it could be used in the clinical setting. Raman4Clinic is a European organization that is working on incorporating Raman Spectroscopy techniques in the medical field. They are currently working on different projects, one of them being monitoring cancer using bodily fluids such as urine and blood samples which are easily accessible. This technique would be less stressful on the patients than constantly having to take biopsies which are not always risk free.
Handheld spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) has just been developed for a novel application to food security, in this case counterfeiting/food fraud. The first time such a handheld device has been used in a food or beverage product, it was able to detect multiple chemical markers of counterfeit alcohol in extremely low concentrations. This included six denaturants and four additives commonly used by counterfeiters worldwide. This was achievable directly through the bottle without any contact with the sample and through multiple colours of commercial bottles of a variety of spirit drinks.
Comparison of topographical (AFM, top) and Raman images of GaSe. Scale bar is 5 μm.
Raman spectroscopy offers several advantages for microscopic analysis. Since it is a scattering technique, specimens do not need to be fixed or sectioned. Raman spectra can be collected from a very small volume (< 1 µm in diameter); these spectra allow the identification of species present in that volume. Water does not generally interfere with Raman spectral analysis. Thus, Raman spectroscopy is suitable for the microscopic examination of minerals, materials such as polymers and ceramics, cells, proteins and forensic trace evidence. A Raman microscope begins with a standard optical microscope, and adds an excitation laser, a monochromator, and a sensitive detector (such as a charge-coupled device (CCD), or photomultiplier tube (PMT)). FT-Raman has also been used with microscopes. Ultraviolet microscopes and UV enhanced optics must be used when a UV laser source is used for Raman microspectroscopy.
In direct imaging, the whole field of view is examined for scattering over a small range of wavenumbers (Raman shifts). For instance, a wavenumber characteristic for cholesterol could be used to record the distribution of cholesterol within a cell culture.
The other approach is hyperspectral imaging or chemical imaging, in which thousands of Raman spectra are acquired from all over the field of view. The data can then be used to generate images showing the location and amount of different components. Taking the cell culture example, a hyperspectral image could show the distribution of cholesterol, as well as proteins, nucleic acids, and fatty acids. Sophisticated signal- and image-processing techniques can be used to ignore the presence of water, culture media, buffers, and other interference.
Raman microscopy, and in particular confocal microscopy, has very high spatial resolution. For example, the lateral and depth resolutions were 250 nm and 1.7 µm, respectively, using a confocal Raman microspectrometer with the 632.8 nm line from a helium–neon laser with a pinhole of 100 µm diameter. Since the objective lenses of microscopes focus the laser beam to several micrometres in diameter, the resulting photon flux is much higher than achieved in conventional Raman setups. This has the added benefit of enhanced fluorescence quenching. However, the high photon flux can also cause sample degradation, and for this reason some setups require a thermally conducting substrate (which acts as a heat sink) in order to mitigate this process. Another approach called global Raman imaging uses complete monochromatic images instead of reconstruction of images from acquired spectra. This technique is being used for the characterization of large scale devices, mapping of different compounds and dynamics study. It has already been use for the characterization of graphene layers, J-aggregated dyes inside carbon nanotubes and multiple other 2D materials such as MoS2 and WSe2. Since the excitation beam is dispersed over the whole field of view, those measurements can be done without damaging the sample.
By using Raman microspectroscopy, in vivo time- and space-resolved Raman spectra of microscopic regions of samples can be measured. As a result, the fluorescence of water, media, and buffers can be removed. Consequently, in vivo time- and space-resolved Raman spectroscopy is suitable to examine proteins, cells and organs.
Raman microscopy for biological and medical specimens generally uses near-infrared (NIR) lasers (785 nm diodes and 1064 nm Nd:YAG are especially common). The use of these lower energy wavelengths reduces the risk of damaging the specimen. However, the intensity of NIR Raman is low (owing to the ω4 dependence of Raman scattering intensity), and most detectors require very long collection times. Recently advances were made which had no destructive effect on mitochondria in the observation of changes in cytochrome c structure that occur in the process of electron transport and ATP synthesis.
Sensitive detectors have become available, making the technique better suited to general use. Raman microscopy of inorganic specimens, such as rocks and ceramics and polymers, can use a broader range of excitation wavelengths.
The polarization of the Raman scattered light also contains useful information. This property can be measured using (plane) polarized laser excitation and a polarization analyzer. Spectra acquired with the analyzer set at both perpendicular and parallel to the excitation plane can be used to calculate the depolarization ratio. Study of the technique is useful in teaching the connections between group theory, symmetry, Raman activity, and peaks in the corresponding Raman spectra. Polarized light only gives access to some of the Raman active modes. By rotating the polarization you can gain access to the other modes. Each mode is separated according to its symmetry.
The spectral information arising from this analysis gives insight into molecular orientation and vibrational symmetry. In essence, it allows the user to obtain valuable information relating to the molecular shape, for example in synthetic chemistry or polymorph analysis. It is often used to understand macromolecular orientation in crystal lattices, liquid crystals or polymer samples.
It is convenient in polarised Raman spectroscopy to describe the propagation and polarisation directions using Porto's notation, described by and named after Brazilian physicist Sergio Pereira da Silva Porto.
Several variations of Raman spectroscopy have been developed. The usual purpose is to enhance the sensitivity (e.g., surface-enhanced Raman), to improve the spatial resolution (Raman microscopy), or to acquire very specific information (resonance Raman).
Spontaneous Raman spectroscopy – Term used to describe Raman spectroscopy without enhancement of sensitivity.
Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) – Normally done in a silver or gold colloid or a substrate containing silver or gold. Surface plasmons of silver and gold are excited by the laser, resulting in an increase in the electric fields surrounding the metal. Given that Raman intensities are proportional to the electric field, there is large increase in the measured signal (by up to 1011). This effect was originally observed by Martin Fleischmann but the prevailing explanation was proposed by Van Duyne in 1977. A comprehensive theory of the effect was given by Lombardi and Birke.
Resonance Raman spectroscopy – The excitation wavelength is matched to an electronic transition of the molecule or crystal, so that vibrational modes associated with the excited electronic state are greatly enhanced. This is useful for studying large molecules such as polypeptides, which might show hundreds of bands in "conventional" Raman spectra. It is also useful for associating normal modes with their observed frequency shifts.
Surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERRS) – A combination of SERS and resonance Raman spectroscopy that uses proximity to a surface to increase Raman intensity, and excitation wavelength matched to the maximum absorbance of the molecule being analysed.
Angle-resolved Raman spectroscopy – Not only are standard Raman results recorded but also the angle with respect to the incident laser. If the orientation of the sample is known then detailed information about the phonon dispersion relation can also be gleaned from a single test.
Hyper Raman – A non-linear effect in which the vibrational modes interact with the second harmonic of the excitation beam. This requires very high power, but allows the observation of vibrational modes that are normally "silent". It frequently relies on SERS-type enhancement to boost the sensitivity.
Optical tweezers Raman spectroscopy (OTRS) – Used to study individual particles, and even biochemical processes in single cells trapped by optical tweezers.
Stimulated Raman spectroscopy(SRS) – A pump-probe technique, where a spatially coincident, two color pulse (with polarization either parallel or perpendicular) transfers the population from ground to a rovibrationally excited state. If the difference in energy corresponds to an allowed Raman transition, scattered light will correspond to loss or gain in the pump beam.
Spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) – The Raman scattering beneath an obscuring surface is retrieved from a scaled subtraction of two spectra taken at two spatially offset points
Raman optical activity (ROA) – Measures vibrational optical activity by means of a small difference in the intensity of Raman scattering from chiral molecules in right- and left-circularly polarized incident light or, equivalently, a small circularly polarized component in the scattered light.
Transmission Raman – Allows probing of a significant bulk of a turbid material, such as powders, capsules, living tissue, etc. It was largely ignored following investigations in the late 1960s (Schrader and Bergmann, 1967) but was rediscovered in 2006 as a means of rapid assay of pharmaceuticaldosage forms. There are medical diagnostic applications particularly in the detection of cancer.
Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) – Uses a metallic (usually silver-/gold-coated AFM or STM) tip to enhance the Raman signals of molecules situated in its vicinity. The spatial resolution is approximately the size of the tip apex (20–30 nm). TERS has been shown to have sensitivity down to the single molecule level and holds some promise for bioanalysis applications.
Surface plasmon polariton enhanced Raman scattering (SPPERS) – This approach exploits apertureless metallic conical tips for near field excitation of molecules. This technique differs from the TERS approach due to its inherent capability of suppressing the background field. In fact, when an appropriate laser source impinges on the base of the cone, a TM0 mode (polaritonic mode) can be locally created, namely far away from the excitation spot (apex of the tip). The mode can propagate along the tip without producing any radiation field up to the tip apex where it interacts with the molecule. In this way, the focal plane is separated from the excitation plane by a distance given by the tip length, and no background plays any role in the Raman excitation of the molecule.
Micro-cavity substrates – A method that improves the detection limit of conventional Raman spectra using micro-Raman in a micro-cavity coated with reflective Au or Ag. The micro-cavity has a radius of several micrometers and enhances the entire Raman signal by providing multiple excitations of the sample and couples the forward-scattered Raman photons toward the collection optics in the back-scattered Raman geometry.
Stand-off remote Raman. In standoff Raman, the sample is measured at a distance from the Raman spectrometer, usually by using a telescope for light collection. Remote Raman spectroscopy was proposed in the 1960s and initially developed for the measurement of atmospheric gases. The technique was extended In 1992 by Angel et al. for standoff Raman detection of hazardous inorganic and organic compounds. Standoff Raman detection offers a fast-Raman mode of analyzing large areas such as a football field in minutes. A pulsed laser source and gated detector allow Raman spectra measurements in the daylight and reduces the long-lived fluorescent background generated by transition ions and rare earth ions. Another way to avoid fluorescence, first demonstrated by Sandy Asher in 1984, is to use a UV laser probe beam. At wavelengths of 260 nm, there is effectively no fluorescence interference and the UV signal is inherently strong. A 10X beam expander mounted in front of the laser allows focusing of the beam and a telescope is directly coupled through the camera lens for signal collection. With the system's time-gating capability it is possible to measure remote Raman of your distant target and the atmosphere between the laser and target.
"...in 1997, "Star Ranger" was considered to be a nearly impossible feat for a couple of simple PC computers to pull off. Up until that time, banks of Linux work-stations and warehouses full of programmers had been required to accomplish similar efforts..."
Scott Douglas Redmond was the Producer, Director and Writer for the project.
CLICK EACH THUMBNAIL, BELOW, FOR STAR RANGER PROJECT GALLERY:
A team of UConn chemists led by professors Steven Suib and James Rusling has developed a new material that could make hydrogen capture more commercially viable and provide a key element for a new generation of cheaper, light-weight hydrogen fuel cells.
The new metal-free catalyst uses carbon graphene nanotubes infused with sulfur. Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe and a promising source for clean energy. But producing high-grade hydrogen is an expensive and energy-consuming process. Often, the energy spent extracting hydrogen is worth more than the hydrogen gas it produces. Finding a cheaper and more efficient way of capturing hydrogen would go a long way toward the creation of a sustainable hydrogen economy, and would help reduce the world's reliance on fossil fuels.
"We've made a material that looks pretty good," says Suib, Board of Trustees Distinguished Professor of Chemistry and director of UConn's Institute of Materials Science. "Our results show that this material is more than competitive with the state-of-the-art materials quoted in literature, and exceptionally good for the reactions we need." Current hydrogen production uses intense heat to separate hydrogen from hydrocarbons found in crude oil. But the resulting hydrogen isn't very pure, and byproducts must be scrubbed out. An alternate process, capturing hydrogen in water, is cleaner and more sustainable, but it too has limitations.
Electrocatalysts involved in this process are usually made of rare earth metals like platinum and iridium. But they are very expensive, making the commercialization of pure hydrogen fuels difficult. Finding a non-metal catalyst that has all of the electrochemical properties of the rare earth metals but can be made at a much reduced cost and still remain stable has been a goal of scientists for years. Suib and Rusling, an expert in electrochemistry, knew that sulfur-infused carbon graphene nanotubes were a potentially efficient non-metal catalyst for an oxygen reduction reaction. An oxygen reduction reaction, or ORR, happens when oxygen and hydrogen molecules are converted to water. The reaction is a key component of hydrogen-based fuel cells. Hydrogen gas used to power the cells passes through a catalyst, currently a corrosive-resistant metal like platinum, causing an oxygen reduction electrochemical reaction that creates energy and – as a byproduct – water.
But reversing that process – starting with water and extracting pure hydrogen from it, a procedure known as an oxygen evolution reaction – is much more of a challenge electrochemically. Suib and Rusling, working with a team of graduate students led by Ph.D. candidates Abdelhamid El-Sawy and Islam Mosa, decided to give it a shot.
The key, Suib says, was manipulating the sulfur and carbon atoms to create stable bonds and structures within the nanotubes, while also maintaining or improving the tubes' electrochemical potential so that it mirrored those found in the rare metals. "If you are going to make a hydrogen economy, you need to have new materials that do the same thing as the extremely expensive rare earth metals," says Suib. "But how do you get something that is cheap, durable, and stable enough to be scaled up to industry levels? That was our challenge."
The process developed in Suib's and Rusling's labs uses a dual doping procedure involving sulfur and benzyl disulfide treated at high heat. The researchers had to carefully add heteroatoms of sulfur at extremely low levels to strike the delicate balance needed to maintain usability and stability. Add too much sulfur and the sample would be unstable; not enough and it would be ineffective. Suib says the procedure for isolating hydrogen in water, in a very general way, is similar to trying to separate flour and sand after they've been mixed together thoroughly.
In the end, he says, the sulfur-doped nanotubes used much less energy in the chemical reaction process than other known processes, and were much more active and efficient catalysts than other known products. Most importantly, he points out, the sulfur-infused nanotubes are efficient for both separating hydrogen from water and reducing oxygen into water. Materials with those dual properties are rare, he notes. "I was surprised, in the end, that it worked so well," Suib says, with a grin. "We thought it might work, but we didn't think it would work so well." Powerful transmission electron microscopes and scanning electron microscopes in UConn's Bioscience Electron Microscopy Lab, Institute of Materials Science, and new FEI Center for Advanced Microscopy and Materials Analysis were instrumental in helping researchers test and characterize the new material as it developed in the lab, Suib says.
More information: Abdelhamid M. El-Sawy et al. Controlling the Active Sites of Sulfur-Doped Carbon Nanotube-Graphene Nanolobes for Highly Efficient Oxygen Evolution and Reduction Catalysis, Advanced Energy Materials (2016). DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501966
UNIFREE(TM) and TECH-Mate(TM) are said, by many legal experts, to have been the "very first Google" that Tom Perkins and Larry Page came and looked at before going off to launch their own version of a search engine that became a free-services aggregation provider...
The original Unifree Search Engine and free-services online tool existed before Google was even created and offered 100% of the same services Google later offered:
100% of the same services...years before Google existed...reviewed by the founders of Google...with NDA's, federal patent records, emails, videos and phone calls proving the "who-did-it-first" arguement
TECHMATE and Unifree were created by Scott Douglas Redmond in San Francisco as an expansion of his work on virtual reality networks. His, and his Team’s, work has continued, and patents have continued to issue, up to today. UNIFREE was launched on the web and has always operated as an on-line search engine and search web services offering. Previously filed patents and federal records prove pre-existence of the technology, company and website prior to the existence of Google. Larry Page met Scott at Stanford University and in Bay Area technology club meetings. As the name implies, UNIFREE is a collection of UNIVERSALLY FREE on-line services such as mail, video, search, social networking, messaging, VOIP, etc.,UNIVERSALLY available for the world population integrated across a common front end. Unifree is a web-site service offering based around a main launch-page which, exactly like the later “Google”, offers all of the free on-line services that Google offers today, with a particular emphasis on on-line media. The United States Patent Office Trademark filings and records describe the free UNIFREE online services center in a manner which many observers feel describes the LATER creation of Google.
The State of California confirms that UNIFREE LLC existed with a California Entity Number as of 11/12/1997 at Plaintiffs incubator address in San Francisco, CA. The public interest ranking algorithm that Plaintiffs created to automatically determine which links to services would be ranked above others on the home page was called “mombot” ™ . It was a robotic formula which acted as the internet mom for your web experiences, just as Google does today. Unifree was fully operational on the world wide web far earlier than Google existed. On February 4, 1998 Scott executed a Non-Disclosure Business Partnership development agreement with Yahoo, inc. for UNIFREE partnership and acquisition discussions, and engaged in numerous time-stamped email communications with funding inquiries and fishing expedition inquiries from Google venture capital investors.
Scott received White House commendation letters, on White House letterhead, for his work on these social networks.
Scott and UNIFREE were featured on a nationally broadcast hour long TV show on FOX discussing the technology. The name Google was formally incorporated on September 4, 1998 at girlfriend Susan Wojcicki‘s apartment in Menlo Park, California. The first patent filed under the name “Google Inc.” was filed on August 31, 1999. This patent, filed by Siu-Leong Iu, Malcom Davis, Hui Luo, Yun-Ting Lin, Guillaume Mercier, and Kobad Bugwadia, is titled “Watermarking System and Methodology for Digital Multimedia Content” and is the earliest patent filing under the assignee name “Google Inc.”12].
Our associate Rajeev Motwani worked with early Google staff on this watermarking technology which was a way to track users activities without their knowledge. The social media aspect of Plaintiff’s internet engine was deployed as the TECHMATE ™ social network long before the Google founders had even met each other. Techmate was advertised in Bay Area newspaper display advertising and certified by the State of California in filed public records with the Secretary of State on March 1, 1987. Did Scott and his team invent Google? Did the founders of Google simply copy something from Plaintiff and add a weird name to it?
SCREEN SHOT FROM 1996:
Does Larry Page at Google Steal Technology For Google? The New York Times Thinks So:
How Larry Page’s Obsessions Became Google’s Business
Three years ago, Charles Chase, an engineer who manages Lockheed Martin’s nuclear fusion program, was sitting on a white leather couch at Google’s Solve for X conference when a man he had never met knelt down to talk to him.
They spent 20 minutes discussing how much time, money and technology separated humanity from a sustainable fusion reaction — that is, how to produce clean energy by mimicking the sun’s power — before Mr. Chase thought to ask the man his name.
Larry Page is not a typical chief executive, and in many of the most visible ways, he is not a C.E.O. at all. Corporate leaders tend to spend a good deal of time talking at investor conferences or introducing new products on auditorium stages. Mr. Page, who is 42, has not been on an earnings call since 2013, and the best way to find him at Google I/O — an annual gathering where the company unveils new products — is to ignore the main stage and follow the scrum of fans and autograph seekers who mob him in the moments he steps outside closed doors.
But just because he has faded from public view does not mean he is a recluse. He is a regular at robotics conferences and intellectual gatherings like TED. Scientists say he is a good bet to attend Google’s various academic gatherings, like Solve for X and Sci Foo Camp, where he can be found having casual conversations about technology or giving advice to entrepreneurs.
Mr. Page is hardly the first Silicon Valley chief with a case of intellectual wanderlust, but unlike most of his peers, he has invested far beyond his company’s core business and in many ways has made it a reflection of his personal fascinations.
He intends to push even further with Alphabet, a holding company that separates Google’s various cash-rich advertising businesses from the list of speculative projects like self-driving cars that capture the imagination but do not make much money. Alphabet companies and investments span disciplines from biotechnology to energy generation to space travel to artificial intelligence to urban planning.
Investors will get a good look at the scope of those ambitions on Feb. 1, when the company, in its fourth-quarter earnings report, will disclose for the first time the costs and income of the collection of projects outside of Google’s core business.
As chief executive of Alphabet, Mr. Page is tasked with figuring how to spin Google’s billions in advertising profits into new companies and industries. When he announced the reorganization last summer, he said that he and Sergey Brin, Google’s other founder, would do this by finding new people and technologies to invest in, while at the same time slimming down Google — now called Google Inc., a subsidiary of Alphabet — so their leaders would have more autonomy.
“In general, our model is to have a strong C.E.O. who runs each business, with Sergey and me in service to them as needed,” Mr. Page wrote in a letter to investors. He said that he and Mr. Brin would be responsible for picking those chief executives, monitoring their progress and determining their pay.
Google’s day-to-day management was left to Sundar Pichai, the company’s new chief executive. His job will not be about preventing cancer or launching rocket ships, but to keep Google’s advertising machine humming, to keep innovating in emerging areas like machine learning and virtual reality — all while steering the company through a thicket of regulatory troubles that could drag on for years.
Mr. Page’s new role is part talent scout and part technology visionary. He still has to find the chief executives of many of the other Alphabet businesses.
And he has said on several occasions that he spends a good deal of time researching new technologies, focusing on what kind of financial or logistic hurdles stand in the way of them being invented or carried out.
His presence at technology events, while just a sliver of his time, is indicative of a giant idea-scouting mission that has in some sense been going on for years but is now Mr. Page’s main job.
In the investor letter, he put it this way: “Sergey and I are seriously in the business of starting new things.”
An Interest in Cool Things
Mr. Page has always had a wide range of interests. As an undergraduate at the University of Michigan, he worked on solar cars, music synthesizers and once proposed that the school build a tram through campus. He arrived at Stanford’s computer science doctorate program in 1995, and had a list of initial research ideas, including self-driving cars and using the web’s many hyperlinks to improve Internet search. His thesis adviser, Terry Winograd, steered him toward search.
“Even before he came to Stanford he was interested in cool technical things that could be done,” Mr. Winograd said. “What makes something interesting for him is a big technical challenge. It’s not so much where it’s headed but what the ride is like.”
Inside Google, Mr. Page is known for asking a lot of questions about how people do their jobs and challenging their assumptions about why things are as they are. In an interview at the Fortune Global Forum last year, Mr. Page said he enjoyed talking to people who ran the company’s data centers.
“I ask them, like, ‘How does the transformer work?’ ‘How does the power come in?’ ‘What do we pay for that?’” he said. “And I’m thinking about it kind of both as an entrepreneur and as a business person. And I’m thinking ‘What are those opportunities?’”
Another question he likes to ask: “Why can’t this be bigger?”
Mr. Page declined multiple requests for comment, and many of the people who spoke about him requested anonymity because they were not supposed to talk about internal company matters.
Many former Google employees who have worked directly with Mr. Page said his managerial modus operandi was to take new technologies or product ideas and generalize them to as many areas as possible. Why can’t Google Now, Google’s predictive search tool, be used to predict everything about a person’s life? Why create a portal to shop for insurance when you can create a portal to shop for every product in the world?
But corporate success means corporate sprawl, and recently Google has seen a number of engineers and others leave for younger rivals like Facebook and start-ups like Uber. Mr. Page has made personal appeals to some of them, and, at least in a few recent cases, has said he is worried that the company has become a difficult place for entrepreneurs, according to people who have met with him.
Part of Mr. Page’s pitch included emphasizing how dedicated he was to “moonshots” like interplanetary travel, or offering employees time and money to pursue new projects of their own. By breaking Google into Alphabet, Mr. Page is hoping to make it a more welcoming home for employees to build new businesses, as well as for potential acquisition targets.
It will also rid his office of the kind of dull-but-necessary annoyances of running a major corporation. Several recently departed Google staff members said that as chief executive of Google, Mr. Page had found himself in the middle of various turf wars, like how to integrate Google Plus, the company’s struggling social media effort, with other products like YouTube, or where to put Google Now, which resided in the Android team but was moved to the search group.
Such disputes are a big reason Mr. Page had been shedding managerial duties and delegating the bulk of his product oversight to Mr. Pichai, these people said. In a 2014 memo to the company announcing Mr. Pichai’s promotion to product chief, Mr. Page said the move would allow him to “focus on the bigger picture” at Google and have more time to get the company’s next generation of big bets off the ground.
People who have worked with Mr. Page say that he tries to guard his calendar, avoiding back-to-back meetings and leaving time to read, research and see new technologies that interest him.
Given that he is worth in the neighborhood of $40 billion and created the world’s most famous website, Mr. Page has the tendency to attract a crowd when he attends technology events. At last year’s Darpa Robotics Challenge, he was trailed closely by a handler who at times acted as a buffer between Mr. Page and would-be cellphone photographers. That commotion could annoy anyone, but it is particularly troubling for Mr. Page, who, because of damaged vocal cords, speaks just above a whisper and sometimes uses a microphone in small meetings.
At home in Palo Alto, Mr. Page tries to have the most normal life possible, driving his children to school or taking his family to local street fairs, according to people who know him or have seen him at such events.
And at Google, even events that are decidedly not normal aspire to a kind of casualness. Take the Camp, an exclusive and secretive event that Google holds at a resort in Sicily and where invitees have included Elon Musk, the chief executive of Tesla Motors and SpaceX, Lloyd C. Blankfein, the chief executive of Goldman Sachs, and Tory Burch, the fashion designer.
One attendee, who asked to remain anonymous because guests were not supposed to discuss the gathering, recalls being surprised by how much time Mr. Page spent with his children.
In public remarks, Mr. Page has said how important his father, Carl V. Page, a computer science professor at Michigan State University who died in 1996, was to his choice of career.
“My dad was really interested in technology,” Mr. Page said at Google I/O in 2013, the last time he took the stage at the event. “He actually drove me and my family all the way across the country to go to a robotics conference. And then we got there and he thought it was so important that his young son go to the conference, one of the few times I’ve seen him really argue with someone to get in someone underage successfully into the conference, and that was me.”
People who work with Mr. Page or have spoken with him at conferences say he tries his best to blend in, and, for the most part, the smaller groups of handpicked attendees at Google’s academic and science gatherings, tend to treat him like a peer.
The scope of his curiosity was apparent at Sci Foo Camp, an annual invitation-only conference that is sponsored by Google, O’Reilly Media and Digital Science.
The largely unstructured “unconference” begins when each of its attendees — an eclectic batch of astronomers, psychologists, physicists and others — write something that interests them on a small card and then paste it to a communal wall. Those notes become the basis for breakout talks on topics like scientific ethics or artificial intelligence.
The last conference was held during a weekend in June on Google’s Mountain View, Calif., campus, and Mr. Page was there for most of it. He did not host or give a speech, but mingled and went to talks, just like everyone else. That impressed investors and computer scientists who did not expect to see so much of him, but researchers who had come from outside Silicon Valley barely noticed.
“I have a vague memory that some founder type person was walking through the crowd,” said Josh Peek, an assistant astronomer at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore.
Another benefit of these gatherings for the reserved Mr. Page is that they are mostly closed to the news media.
A Forward Thinker
When Mr. Page does talk in public, he tends to focus on optimistic pronouncements about the future and Google’s desire to help humanity. Asked about current issues, like how mobile apps are challenging the web or how ad blockers are affecting Google’s business, he tends to dismiss it with something like, “People have been talking about that for a long time.”
Lately, he has talked more about his belief that for-profit companies can be a force for social good and change. During a 2014 interview with Charlie Rose, Mr. Page said that instead of a nonprofit or philanthropic organization, he would rather leave his money to an entrepreneur like Mr. Musk.
Of course, for every statement Mr. Page makes about Alphabet’s technocorporate benevolence, you can find many competitors and privacy advocates holding their noses in disgust. Technology companies like Yelp have accused the company of acting like a brutal monopolist that is using the dominance of its search engine to steer consumers toward Google services, even if that means giving the customers inferior information.
Financially speaking, Mr. Page is leaving his chief executive job at Google at a time when things could not be better. The company’s revenue continues to grow about 20 percent a year, an impressive figure for any business, but particularly so for one that is on pace to generate approximately $60 billion this year.
In fact, the company’s main business issue seems to be that it is doing too well. Google is facing antitrust charges in Europe, along with investigations in Europe and the United States. Those issues are now mostly Mr. Pichai’s to worry about, as Mr. Page is out looking for the next big thing.
It is hard to imagine how even the most ambitious person could hope to revolutionize so many industries. And Mr. Page, no matter how smart, cannot possibly be an expert in every area Alphabet wants to touch.
His method is not overly technical. Instead, he tends to focus on how to make a sizable business out of whatever problem this or that technology might solve. Leslie Dewan, a nuclear engineer who founded a company that is trying to generate cheap electricity from nuclear waste, also had a brief conversation with Mr. Page at the Solve For X conference.
She said he questioned her on things like modular manufacturing and how to find the right employees.
“He doesn’t have a nuclear background, but he knew the right questions to ask,” said Dr. Dewan, chief executive of Transatomic Power. “‘Have you thought about approaching the manufacturing in this way?’ ‘Have you thought about the vertical integration of the company in this way?’ ‘Have you thought about training the work force this way?’ They weren’t nuclear physics questions, but they were extremely thoughtful ways to think about how we could structure the business.”
Dr. Dewan said Mr. Page even gave her an idea for a new market opportunity that she had not thought of. Asked to be more specific, she refused. The idea was too good to share.
As Producer Scott delivered an instant temporary city for 200,000+ people, year-after-year...
Bay To Breakers “Footstock” Production
We created the first 200,000+ person post-race sports-city and ran logistics for that event for the “World’s Largest Sports Event, The Bay To Breakers.” as Producer; contracted for design, development and construction of a 1,200,000 square foot temporary “City”, with all of the functions required to keep people safe and functional, for hundreds of thousands of people.
The network technology that self-heals, saves billions and works anywhere on Earth
PEER-TO-PEER Network Technologies By Scott
GENERAL DESCRIPTION: A variety of projects which deploy collaborative device connection to support communications in challenged regions and disaster situations. Our teams have built, patented, deployed and delivered some of the first, and leading, peer to peer technology in the world. Some of our team technology has saved many, many lives. PHYSICS: Any device that can see an electromagnetic signal can often also send an electromagnetic signal. Many devices, today, can send and receive many types of electromagnetic signals, on the same device, some concurrently. This approach turns each device (ie: your smartphone or gamebox) into its own broadcasting, reception and relay station. This technology needs no servers, towers or infrastructure to operate. Signals can range from audio, radio, light, IR, UV, vibration, laser, reflection, GPS interrupts, induction, and other modifications of the I/O capabilities of the device. USES: To support communications in challenged regions and disaster situations
Our team developed, engineered, produced, patented and marketed the software suite that has become one of the leading solutions sets in the intelligence, defense and emergency services arenas globally with over $300 Million invested in it’s production and deployment. One of the packages was distributed by Apple Computer with marketing personally accelerated by Steve Jobs in support of the Tsunami disaster. Other versions of the software have been used in refugee zones globally. When an illegal copycat version of our software failed in one region (Putting lives at risk), our authorized version kept on working. Our architecture has been proven to be unstoppable – against all odds. The full version STILL has yet to be hacked, in the field, by any known technology. It is STILL the least network- congestive, lowest-cost infrastructure, most ultra-secure, network solution in the world! A copy of the Movie: BIRTH OF A NATION was placed in the network flow out on the open web, using the technology, with a phrase imprinted across the center of the image. A $250,000.00 reward was offered to anyone who could provide a fully reassembled copy of the film with the imprinted image and certification headers intact. To this day: Nobody has been able to acquire that film sample off of the web, and reassemble it; proving the strength of the technology.
EMERGENCY REFUGEE COMMUNICATIONS FOR DISASTERS AND WAR-ZONES:
The CIA's associated group: IN-Q-TEL, invited us to show our technology to them and then delivered it, via their sister organization: New America Foundation, under the names Serval, Commotion, and other identifiers. Federal accounting agencies report that over $200M has been spent, to date, via State Department budgets, to deliver the system globally. Peer-to-peer data relaying is now the #1 software solution for troubled regions and disaster zones.
Scott’s Original “Internet in a Suitcase” - Multiple U.S. Patents issued as "First-To-Invent"
When inferior copy-cat versions failed, costing lives, our original version kept on working.
Using the technology, only 3 people's cell phones can cover San Francisco from ocean-to-bay, without the need for any servers.
FIRECHAT and other P2P Emergency Communications Systems Are Changing The World:
The internet-free messaging app that’s sweeping the world
Apps use P2P combination of Bluetooth and WiFi
We already have Whatsapp, Facebook messenger, Snapchat etc, what makes FireChat different?
You can chat “off the grid”, even if there is no internet connection or mobile phone coverage. How is that possible? Instead of relying on a central server, it is based on peer-to-peer “mesh networking” and connects to nearby phones using Bluetooth and WiFi, with connectivity increasing as more people use it in an area. Firechat lets you talk anonymouslyWhere might this be useful? According to FireChat, “on the beach or in the subway, at a big game or a trade show, camping in the wild or at a concert, or even travelling abroad, simply fire up the app with a friend or two and find out who else is there.” Seriously though. In Hong Kong mostly, where pro-democracy protesters are using it to communicate amid fears of network shutdowns. It’s also been used by Iraqis and Taiwanese students during their anti-Beijing Sunflower Movement. Aside from not being reliant on the internet (which some governments restrict), it is more clandestine and less traceable. You can also join group conversationsHow popular is FireChat? Over 100,000 people downloaded it in 24 hours in Hong Kong over the weekend, with the CEO saying that numbers are “booming” and up to 33,000 people were using the app at the same time.
– Lasers, Video Projectors, Drones, P2P, coded-hashcodes, Mass-mouthing – GEEK VS. GEEK CYBERWAR! – Lasers write messages on buildings and project animations – Pocket video projectors show digital posters and movies on sides of buildings – Protestor’s drones monitor crowd safety – Entire New INTERNET, built by Democracy Protestors, does not use any corporate back-bone infrastructure. – Complex codes on Twitter and in TEXT messages have hidden meanings – Blinking laser dots on buildings use MORSE CODE – Arm Signals and hand signals use visual message relay – Hong Kong protesters in cyberwar
By Jeff Yang
A pro-democracy protester holds on to a barrier as he and others defend a barricade from attacks by rival protest groups in the Mong Kok district of Hong Kong on Saturday, October 4.
Pro-democracy student protesters pin a man to the ground after an assault during a scuffle with local residents in Mong Kok, Hong Kong on October 4. Friction persisted between pro-democracy protesters and opponents of their weeklong occupation of major Hong Kong streets, and police denied they had any connection to criminal gangs suspected of inciting attacks on largely peaceful demonstrators.
Pro-democracy protesters raise their arms in a sign of nonviolence as they protect a barricade from rival protest groups in the Mong Kok district of Hong Kong on October 4.
Students in the massive protests in Hong Kong want representative democracy
Jeff Yang: These protesters may be the most sophisticated and technologically savvy ever
He says Chinese authorities are blocking images and creating apps that trick protesters
Yang: Smartphone a great tool for populist empowerment but it can easily be used against us
Editor’s note: Jeff Yang is a columnist for The Wall Street Journal Online and can be heard frequently on radio as a contributor to shows such as PRI’s “The Takeaway” and WNYC’s “The Brian Lehrer Show.” He is the author of “I Am Jackie Chan: My Life in Action” and editor of the graphic novel anthologies “Secret Identities” and “Shattered.” The opinions expressed in this commentary are solely those of the author.
(CNN) — The massive protests in Hong Kong took an ugly turn on Friday when students pressing for representative democracy clashed with opponents, prompting a breakdown of talks aimed at defusing the crisis.
This negativity followed a week of remarkably peaceful civil disobedience in what has been dubbed the “Umbrella Revolution,” after the widely shared image of a man defiantly holding up an umbrella in a haze of police tear gas fired to disperse the tens of thousands of activists crowding the city’s main government and business thoroughfare, the region referred to as Central.
But protesters shrugged off the gas assault as if it had never happened. Behind the barricades, they studied for exams, coordinated the cleanup and recycling of trash generated by the crowd, and jerry-rigged guerrilla charging stations for the voluminous array of devices the demonstrators are using as part of the sophisticated war they’re waging on the virtual front, wielding the digital-age weapons of image feeds, live streaming video and ceaseless social media updates.
The Umbrella Revolution is hardly the first protest to harness the power of technology to coordinate activities and broadcast messages, but it’s almost certainly the most sophisticated.
Andrew Lih, a journalism professor at American University, discussed the infrastructure the activists have adopted in an article for Quartz, a system that incorporates fast wireless broadband, multimedia smartphones, aerial drones and mobile video projectors, cobbled together by pro-democracy geektivists like the ad-hoc hacker coalition Code4HK.
Given this remarkable show of force by the crowd under the Umbrella, it’s not surprising that Beijing has moved quickly to prevent transmissions from reaching the mainland, blocking Chinese access to Instagram, where images and videos from the demonstrations and police crackdowns are regularly being posted, and banning all posts on popular messaging sites like Weibo and WeChat carrying keywords that refer to the protests.
Activists have fought back by downloading the peer-to-peer “mesh messaging” app FireChat — which allows communication among nearby users even when centralized mobile services are unavailable by linking smartphones directly to one another via Bluetooth and wifi — in the hundreds of thousands, and by creating an elaborate system of numerical hashtags to stand in for forbidden terms.
For example, #689 is the codename for Hong Kong chief executive C.Y. Leung, referring to the number of votes he received in his selection as the region’s highest government representative, a scant majority of the 1,200 members of the the Communist Party-approved nominating committee. #8964 references Beijing’s brutal June 4, 1989, crackdown on student democracy activists in Tiananmen Square, which casts a looming shadow over the Occupy Central demonstrations.
These strategies seem to have prompted the Chinese authorities to resort to new and more insidious tactics. Links — seemingly posted by Code4HK — have begun popping up on social media, inviting users to download a new app that allows for secure coordination of protest activities.
That’s a harsh lesson not just for those living under authoritarian regimes, but for us citizens of nominally free and democratic societies as well.
The smartphone is by far the most formidable tool for populist empowerment ever invented, turning individual human beings into mobile broadcast platforms and decentralized mobs into self-organizing bodies. But it’s also jarringly easy for these devices to be used against us.
Here in the United States, revelations of the existence of massive government surveillance programs like the NSA’s PRISM have caused an uproar among digital libertarians. Likewise, criminal smartphone hacking and cloud cracking has led to the release of celebrity nude photos and sex videos, to the humiliation of those who thought them private.
The response from leading smartphone developers like Apple and Google has been to announce new methods of locking and encrypting information to make it harder for individuals, businesses or governments to gain access to our personal information.
But even as they add these fresh layers of security, they continue to extend the reach of these devices into our lives, with services that integrate frictionless financial transactions and home systems management into our smartphones, and wearable accessories that capture and transmit our very heartbeats.
Imagine how much control commercial exploiters, criminals — or overreaching law enforcement — might have if it gained access to all these features. The upshot is that we increasingly have to take matters into our own hands (and handsets), policing our online behavior and resisting the temptation to click on risky links.
It may be worth exploring innovative new tools that offer unblockable or truly secure alternatives to traditional communications, like the free VPN browser extension Hola, which evades global digital boundaries to Web access; open-source projects likeServal and Commotion, which are attempting to develop standards for mesh connectivity that route around the need for commercial mobile phone networks; and apps like RedPhone and Signal, which offer free, worldwide end-to-end encrypted voice conversations.
Most of these are works in progress. But as technology becomes ever more deeply embedded into our lifestyles, keeping our digital identities secure and private is becoming increasingly critical. And as the protests in Hong Kong have shown, the only solution may be to use technology to defend against technology — in other words, to fight fire with FireChat.
IEEE Communications Magazine Publishes InterDigital Paper on P2P Communications
InterDigital’s M2M team was recently published in the prestigious IEEE Communications Magazine with their article, “CA-P2P: Context-Aware Proximity-Based Peer-to-Peer Wireless Communications.” The work was co-authored by Chonggang Wang, Qing Li, Hongkun Li, Paul Russell, Jr. and Zhuo Chen, all engineers at InterDigital. The authors argue that CA-P2P may be a viable solution to both existing and new proximity-based services, including commercial applications such as advertising as well as emergency/disaster relief, when centralized networks may become unavailable. Taking various levels of context into account during the P2P connection results in quick, efficient peer discovery and peer association. This will become increasingly important in the emerging fifth generation, with growing numbers of small cell and D2D communications becoming common. The paper delves into the benefits and challenges of CA-P2P and offers performance evaluations of simulations as evidence. Interested in learning even more? Visit our Vault, where you can search keywords such as peer-to-peer, device-to-device, D2D and IoT to find additional resources.
Our teams have been engaged to produce and/or manage million square foot+ venues with hundreds of thousands of people. We layout the operation, stage the logistics, source all suppliers and infrastructure, run the operations, keep everyone safe and then disappear these entire "temporary cities" as if they were never there.
Here are a few samples of past work for the community, organizations and sponsors:
San Francisco Blues Festival Logistics
We ran logistics for the San Francisco Blues Festival working with the Founder: Tom Mazzolini and the Co-Sponsors: The National Park Service.
The San Francisco Blues Festival broke the record as the longest continuously operated American music festival in national Park service history.
Producer - A decade of delivery of the Bay To Breakers “Footstock” Production
We created the first 200,000+ person post-race sports-city and ran logistics for that event for the “World’s Largest Sports Event, The Bay To Breakers.” as Producer; contracted for design, development and construction of a 1,200,000 square foot temporary “City”, with all of the functions required to keep people safe and functional, for hundreds of thousands of people.
Ray Charles in one of his last outdoor major venue concerts. Produced by Scott at the Footstock Polo Fields
Scott created and produced some of the biggest, and/or first, major public programs of their kind:
The Production Works Projects featuring top performers from rock history -
Chet Helms Monterey Tribal Stomp Venue Manager -
Scott's friend: Chet Helms, Janice Joplins Manager and creator of The Family Dog
Upgrade and Special Events Manager for the expansion of Fort Mason Center-
From old military piers full of pigeons and waste....
...To the top major events centre in the Bay Area with record-setting crowds and novel presentations, with production and operations by Scott, working for both The National Park Service and Fort Mason Center:
Production Sets and Decorations for Mimi Farina for Bread and Roses -
Technology Systems Designer for national sports tours -
Production Lead for THE GREAT GAMING HOUSE. One hundred theaters in the same building for an interactive walk-through venue about the game of life. Created by the founder or arena theater in America; author Kelly Yeaton.-
Producer and designer of the promotional program for the San Francisco Symphony called: AMERICAN CLOUD -
Scott was the Creative Director for Showplace Square and assisted with tenant relations and produced the annual music spectacular -
For the Opening of Ramada's top hotel, Our crew were tasked with rappelling the building to install the world's largest ribbon and bow -
PUT THE SAN FRANCISCO SYMPHONY OUT ON A PIER? NO PROBLEM:
Our team is known as “The Father’s of VR”. They built, and received U.S. Government patent awards on, the first immersive VR and augmented digital reality systems. Some of those systems were very expensive, as high as $2.5M at the time. Now you buy them in retail stores for under $600.
MORE PROJECT TRACK RECORD VIDEO: Our patented ShapeWALL Tactile VR Surface Modules, Pods, Mobile devices and Modeling surfaces. From “Crazy Idea” to functional tool:
If you can use tape, scissors, glue and pliers; you can, most likely, build some of these systems yourself. You already have the main part of the electronics by using your phone, tablet, computer or gamebox. You don’t even have to tear any electronics apart. You can make what you already have do dual purpose. As shown in this image, and in the time-stamps on our patent filings and issuance’s, we developed one of the first, if not the first, uses of a smartphone as the head-mounted display and position-sensor unit: Discussion Of Parts Suppliers: Get a new back mount or get new lenses and swap them out when you need to. It is designed for hot swap lenses. Ideal lenses are the stacked Fresnel flat stamp 70-120 degree or the Erfle 65 degree lens, or the Plano Convex 92/95 degree lens. These lenses, or lens sets, can be purchased from various suppliers online for less than $30.00. You can hot dip the whole mount in truck bed coating or black electrical tape-it for various amounts of blackout/immersion of the unit. (A famous game company spent millions on legal research to determine that due to past litigation from users of other gaming VR headsets from other companies, not ours, one cannot legally sell you a fully blacked-out headset mount.) You choose your safest blackout/immersion level based on your use and safety parameters.
Past VR Work & Products Include:
The U.S. Government, after extensive investigation, awarded us multiple seminal patents as sole inventor of immersive virtual reality chambers, now known as “The Cave” or “The Holodeck”. This technology is used in the highest end tactical mission simulators and defense training systems: We has consulted on Virtual Reality, Networked Simulation and wearable visualization technologies for a number of government and corporate clients. Here is an E! Entertainment Network segment about Scott’s work with the Production of Oliver Stone’s“Wild Palms”:
SCOTT'S PATENTED LIGHT-CASTING(TM) EVEN WORKS IN OUTER SPACE
THE INTERNET: POWERED BY LIGHT!
In 1977, a group of technicians and engineers in San Francisco, California went up on top of a mountain in the middle of San Francisco, named Twin Peaks, and broadcast the internet across all of San Francisco, Oakland and Berkeley in Northern California. They did not use wires or radio waves. They used light.
Entrepreneur and technologist Scott Douglas Redmond ( http://www.scottdouglasredmond.com/ ) , and his team of brilliant engineers rigged up a system on the mountain designed to save time and money, but they soon discovered other advantages. The city of San Francisco gave him the mountain for nearly a week, during which he received a mayoral proclamation and the donation of an entire radio station and the main laser used in Star Wars for special effects.
What happens when you give a legion of engineers a whole mountain in the middle of San Francisco?